Beauty Schools in South africa

Beauty Schools in South africa

Elizabeth Beauty School

The Elizabeth Beauty School was established by the current principal and has been operating as a training and educational institution in the health and skin care field since 1995.

Cell: 083 655 1056

Tel: 041- 583 3759

Fax: 041- 583 3416

Vice Principal: Elrika

website:http://www.ebschool.co.za/index.htm

Peridot Stone Meaning, Peridots Birthstone Info

Peridot Stone

Peridot Stone helps to move past the hurt, and understand the relationships. It adds intelligence to the romantic situations, giving a bit of common sense in affairs of the heart, and protecting someone from unnecessary heartache. This is a visionary stone, it brings understanding of destiny and purpose. It usually releases negative vibrations, and promotes clarity and well being. A Peridot stone can be put in a cash box along with Citrine. It will help to draw money to the person, and Citrine will help to keep it once one gets it. Peridot is the money stone. These stones are particular good in helping to deal with jealousy, a very dark destructive emotion. These were worn by the ancient Egyptian high priest to guard against jealousy of the Pharaoh`s power.

Peridot is a `Sun` energy stone due to its yellow-green color. This trait makes Peridot a warm, friendly, and happy stone. This is a great stress or anxiety reliever. Peridot Stone are more powerful when set in yellow gold and more effective when pierced in a bead form. In ancient times, the Romans wore Peridot to relieve depression. It strengthens, and regenerates all organs, stimulating new and healthy growth. It usually acts as if one had just taken a Health Tonic. These promote sleep.

Peridot Stone can be used to bring results to a search – seeking and of lost or mislaid items, but applies to the spiritual realm as well, as in feeling despair, spiritually lost , or emotionally isolated. It facilitates the birth process, stimulating contractions and opening the birth canal. A piece can be slipped into the `birth room` to enhance the process.

Peridot stone is used in rings, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and accent stones. Its hardness is 6.5 – 7 in Moh`s scale. As with all gems, peridot should be protected from scratches and sharp blows. Drastic temperature changes should be avoided. It should not be cleaned in a home ultrasonic cleaner. Peridot Stone is a beautiful stone that wears well and looks beautiful with a lot of your wardrobe. Peridot is readily available in most sizes and a variety of shapes.

Peridot stone should be priced about the same as a garnet or tourmaline. The buyer should be knowledgeable so that he or she can get the difference between the original and a very good imitation of peridot that is actually a type of synthetic peridot.

About Manmade Fibers Manufacturing Process

About Manmade Fibers Manufacturing Process
Glossary of Various Synthetic Fibers

Most synthetic manufactured fibers are created by “extrusion” – forcing a thick, viscous liquid (about the consistency of cold honey) through the tiny holes of a device called a spinneret to form continuous filaments of semi-solid polymer.

In their initial state, the fiber-forming polymers are solids and therefore must be first converted into a fluid state for extrusion. This is usually achieved by melting, if the polymers are thermoplastic synthetics (i.e., they soften and melt when heated), or by dissolving them in a suitable solvent if they are non-thermoplastic cellulosics. If they cannot be dissolved or melted directly, they must be chemically treated to form soluble or thermoplastic derivatives.

Recent technologies have been developed for some specialty fibers made of polymers that do not melt, dissolve, or form appropriate derivatives. For these materials, the small fluid molecules are mixed and reacted to form the otherwise intractable polymers during the extrusion process
Nylon

Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers known generically as polyamides and first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. Nylon is one of the most commonly used polymers

Density – 1.15g/cm³
Electrical conductivity (σ) – 10-12S/m
Thermal conductivity 0.25W/(m·K), 463 K-624 K
Melting point 190°C-350°C or 374°F-663°F

Overview

Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material, first used commercially in a nylon-bristled toothbrush (1938), followed more famously by women’s stockings (“nylons”; 1940). It is made of repeating units linked by peptide bonds (another name for amide bonds) and is frequently referred to as polyamide (PA). Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic polymer. There are two common methods of making nylon for fiber applications. In one approach, molecules with an acid (COOH) group on each end are reacted with molecules containing amine (NH2) groups on each end. The resulting nylon is named on the basis of the number of carbon atoms separating the two acid groups and the two amines. These are formed into monomers of intermediate molecular weight, which are then reacted to form long polymer chains.

Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk and substituted for it in many different products after silk became scarce during World War II. It replaced silk in military applications such as parachutes and flak vests, and was used in many types of vehicle tires.

Nylon fibers are used in many applications, including fabrics, bridal veils, carpets, musical strings, and rope.

Solid nylon is used for mechanical parts such as machine screws, gears and other low- to medium-stress components previously cast in metal. Engineering-grade nylon is processed by extrusion, casting, and injection molding. Solid nylon is used in hair combs. Type 6/6 Nylon 101 is the most common commercial grade of nylon, and Nylon 6 is the most common commercial grade of molded nylon. Nylon is available in glass-filled variants which increase structural and impact strength and rigidity, and molybdenum sulfide-filled variants which increase lubricity.
Chemistry

Nylons are condensation copolymers formed by reacting equal parts of a diamine and a dicarboxylic acid, so that peptide bonds form at both ends of each monomer in a process analogous to polypeptide biopolymers.

Chemical elements included are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. The numerical suffix specifies the numbers of carbons donated by the monomers; the diamine first and the diacid second. The most common variant is nylon 6-6 which refers to the fact that the diamine (hexamethylene diamine) and the diacid (adipic acid) each donate 6 carbons to the polymer chain. As with other regular copolymers like polyesters and polyurethanes, the “repeating unit” consists of one of each monomer, so that they alternate in the chain. Since each monomer in this copolymer has the same reactive group on both ends, the direction of the amide bond reverses between each monomer, unlike natural polyamide proteins which have overall directionality: Cterminal→ Nterminal.

In the laboratory, nylon6-6 can also be made using adipoyl chloride instead of adipic. It is difficult to get the proportions exactly correct, and deviations can lead to chain termination at molecular weights less than a desirable 10,000 daltons (u). To overcome this problem, a crystalline, solid “nylon salt” can be formed at room temperature, using an exact 1:1 ratio of the acid and the base to neutralize each other. Heated to 285 °C, the salt reacts to form nylon polymer. Above 20,000 daltons, it is impossible to spin the chains into yarn, so to combat this, some acetic acid is added to react with a free amine end group during polymer elongation to limit the molecular weight. In practice, and especially for 6,6, the monomers are often combined in a water solution. The water used to make the solution is evaporated under controlledconditions, and the increasing concentration of “salt” is polymerized to the final molecular weight.

DuPont patented[1] nylon6,6, so in order to compete, other companies (particularly the German BASF) developed the homopolymer nylon6, or polycaprolactam – not a condensation polymer, but formed by a ring-opening polymerization (alternatively made by polymerizing aminocaproic acid). The peptide bond within the caprolactam is broken with the exposed active groups on each side being incorporated into two new bonds as the monomer becomes part of the polymer backbone. In this case, all amide bonds lie in the same direction, but the properties of nylon6 are sometimes indistinguishable from those of nylon6,6 – except for melt temperature (N6 is lower) and some fiber properties in products like carpets and textiles. There is also nylon9.

Nylon5,10, made from pentamethylene diamine and sebacic acid, was studied by Carothers even before nylon6,6 and has superior properties, but is more expensive to make. In keeping with this naming convention, “nylon6,12″ (N-6,12) or “PA-6,12″ is a copolymer of a 6C diamine and a 12C diacid. Similarly for N-5,10 N-6,11; N-10,12, etc. Other nylons include copolymerized dicarboxylic acid/diamine products that are not based upon the monomers listed above. For example, some aromatic nylons are polymerized with the addition of diacids like terephthalic acid (→ Kevlar) or isophthalic acid (→ Nomex), more commonly associated with polyesters. There are copolymers of N-6,6/N6; copolymers of N-6,6/N-6/N-12; and others. Because of the way polyamides are formed, nylon would seem to be limited to unbranched, straight chains. But “star” branched nylon can be produced by the condensation of dicarboxylic acids with polyamines having three or more amino groups.
Basic Concepts of Nylon Production

The first approach:

combining molecules with an acid (COOH) group on each end are reacted with two chemicals that contain amine (NH2) groups on each end.

This process creates nylon 6,6, made of hexamethylene diamine with six carbon atoms and acidipic acid, as well as six carbon atoms.

The second approach:

a compound has an acid at one end and an amine at the other and is polymerized to form a chain with repeating units of (-NH-[CH2]n-CO-)x.
In other words, nylon 6 is made from a single six-carbon substance called caprolactam.
In this equation, if n=5, then nylon 6 is the assigned name. (may also be referred to as polymer)

Nylon 6,6

Pleats and creases can be heat-set at higher temperatures
Nylon 6 is very easy to dye, but Nylon 6,6 is not

Nylon 6

Better dye Affinity
Softer Hand

Characteristics

Variation of luster: nylon has the ability to be very lustrous, semilustrous or dull.
Durability: its high tenacity fibers are used for seatbelts, tire cords, ballistic cloth and other uses.
High elongation
Excellent abrasion resistance
Highly resilient (nylon fabrics are heat-set)
Paved the way for easy-care garments
High resistance to: insects, fungi and animals,molds, mildew, rot,many chemicals
Used in carpets and nylon stockings
Melts instead of burning
Used in many military applications

Spandex

Spandex-or elastane-is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. It is stronger and more durable than rubber, its major non-synthetic competitor. It was invented in 1959 by DuPont chemist Joseph Shivers. When first introduced, it revolutionized many areas of the clothing industry.

“Spandex” is a generic name and not derived from the chemical name of the fiber, as are most manufactured fibers, but an extension of the word expand.[1] “Spandex” is the preferred name in North America; elsewhere it is referred to as “elastane”
Spandex fiber production

Spandex fibers are produced in four different ways, including melt extrusion, reaction spinning, solution dry spinning, and solution wet spinning. All of these methods include the initial step of reacting monomers to produce a prepolymer. Once the prepolymer is formed, it is reacted further in various ways and drawn out to produce a long fiber. The solution dry spinning method is used to produce over 90% of the world’s spandex fibers.[2]

Solution dry spinning

Step 1: The first step is to produce the prepolymer. This is done by mixing a macroglycol with a diisocyanate monomer. The two compounds are mixed together in a reaction vessel to produce a prepolymer. A typical ratio of glycol to diisocyanate is 1:2.
Step 2: The prepolymer is further reacted with an equal amount of diamine. This reaction is known as chain extension reaction. The resulting solution is diluted with a solvent to produce the spinning solution. The solvent helps make the solution thinner and more easily handled, and then it can be pumped into the fiber production cell.
Step 3: The spinning solution is pumped into a cylindrical spinning cell where it is cured and converted into fibers. In this cell, the polymer solution is forced through a metal plate called a spinneret. This causes the solution to be aligned in strands of liquid polymer. As the strands pass through the cell, they are heated in the presence of a nitrogen and solvent gas. This process causes the liquid polymer to react chemically and form solid strands.
Step 4: As the fibers exit the cell, an amount of solid strands are bundled together to produce the desired thickness. Each fiber of spandex is made up of many smaller individual fibers that adhere to one another due to the natural stickiness of their surface.
Step 5: The resulting fibers are then treated with a finishing agent which can be magnesium stearate or another polymer. This treatment prevents the fibers’ sticking together and aids in textile manufacture. The fibers are then transferred through a series of rollers onto a spool.
Step 6: When the spools are filled with fiber, they are put into final packaging and shipped to textile manufacturers.

Major spandex fiber uses

Apparel and clothing articles where stretch is desired, generally for comfort and fit, such as:
athletic, aerobic, and exercise apparel
wetsuitss
wimsuits/bathing suits
competitive swimwear
netball bodysuits
brassiere straps and bra side panels
ski pants
disco jeanss
lacks
hosiery
leggings
socks
diapers
skinny jeans
belts
underwear
dance belts worn by male ballet dancers and others

Compression garments such as:
surgical hose
support hose
cycling shorts
wrestling singlet
one piece rowing suits
foundation garments
motion capture suits
Shaped garments such as
bra cups

Home furnishings, such as microbead pillows

Spandex Fiber Characteristics

Can be stretched repeatedly and still recover to very near its original length and shape

Generally, can be stretched more than 500% without breaking

Stronger, more durable and higher retractive force than rubber

Lightweight, soft, smooth, supple

In garments, provides a combination of comfort and fit, prevents bagging and sagging

Heat-settable – facilitates transforming puckered fabrics into flat fabrics, or flat fabrics into permanent rounded shapes

Dyeable

Resistant to deterioration by body oils, perspiration, lotions or detergents

Abrasion resistant

When fabrics containing spandex are sewn, the needle causes little or no damage from “needle cutting” compared to the older types of elastic materials

Available in fiber diameters ranging from 10 denier to 2500 denier

Available in clear and opaque lusters

Acrylic
Basic Principles of Acrylic Fiber Production

Acrylic fibers are produced from acrylonitrile, a petrochemical. The acrylonitrile is usually combined with small amounts of other chemicals to improve the ability of the resulting fiber to absorb dyes. Some acrylic fibers are dry spun and others are wet spun. Acrylic fibers are used in staple or tow form.

Acrylic Fiber Characteristics

Outstanding wickability & quick drying to move moisture from body surface

Flexible aesthetics for wool-like, cotton-like, or blended appearance

Easily washed, retains shape

Resistant to moths, oil, and chemicals

Dyeable to bright shades with excellent fastness

Superior resistance to sunlight degradation

Some Major Acrylic Fiber Uses

Apparel: Sweaters, socks, fleece wear, circular knit apparel, sportswear and childrens wear
Home Furnishings: Blankets, area rugs, upholstery, pile; luggage, awnings, outdoor furniture
Other Uses: Craft yarns, sail cover cloth, wipe cloths
Industrial Uses: Asbestos replacement; concrete and stucco reinforcement

Aramid

Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications, for ballistic rated body armor fabric, and as an asbestos substitute. The name is a shortened form of “aromatic polyamide”. They are fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis, so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited.

History

Aromatic polyamides were first introduced in commercial applications in the early 1960s, with a meta-aramid fiber produced by DuPont under the tradename Nomex. This fiber, which handles similarly to normal textile apparel fibers, is characterized by its excellent resistance to heat, as it neither melts nor ignites in normal levels of oxygen. It is used extensively in the production of protective apparel, air filtration, thermal and electrical insulation as well as a substitute for asbestos. Meta-aramid is also produced in the Netherlands and Japan by Teijin under the tradename Teijinconex, in China by Yantai under the tradename New Star and a variant of meta-aramid in France by Kermel under the tradename Kermel.

Based on earlier research by Monsanto and Bayer, a fiber – para-aramid – with much higher tenacity and elastic modulus was also developed in the 1960s-1970s by DuPont and Akzo Nobel, both profiting from their knowledge of rayon, polyester and nylon processing.
Polymer preparation

Aramids are generally prepared by the reaction between an amine group and a carboxylic acid halide group. Simple AB homopolymers may look like:

nNH2-Ar-COCl → -(NH-Ar-CO)n- + nHCl

The most well-known aramids (Nomex, Kevlar, Twaron and New Star) are AABB polymers. Nomex, New Star and Teijinconex contain predominantly the meta-linkage and are poly-metaphenylene isophtalamides (MPIA). Kevlar and Twaron are both p-phenylene terephtalamides (PPTA), the simplest form of the AABB para-polyaramide. PPTA is a product of p-phenylene diamine (PPD) and terephtaloyl dichloride (TDC or TCl). Production of PPTA relies on a co-solvent with an ionic component (calcium chloride (CaCl2)) to occupy the hydrogen bonds of the amide groups, and an organic component (N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP)) to dissolve the aromatic polymer. Prior to the invention of this process by Leo Vollbracht, who worked at the Dutch chemical firm Akzo, no practical means of dissolving the polymer was known. The use of this system led to a patent war between Akzo and DuPont.
Spinning

After production of the polymer, the aramid fiber is produced by spinning the solved polymer to a solid fiber from a liquid chemical blend. Polymer solvent for spinning PPTA is generally 100% (water free) sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

Appearances

Fiber,Chopped fiber,Powder, Pulp

Aramid fiber characteristics

good resistance to abrasion

good resistance to organic solvents

nonconductive

no melting point, degradation starts from 500°C

low flammability

good fabric integrity at elevated temperatures

sensitive to acids and salts

sensitive to ultraviolet radiation

prone to static build-up unless finished

Major industrial uses

flame-resistant clothing
heat protective clothing and helmets
body armor, competing with PE based fiber products such as Dyneema and Spectra
composite materials
asbestos replacement (e.g. braking pads)
hot air filtration fabrics
tires, newly as Sulfron (sulfur modified Twaron)
mechanical rubber goods reinforcement
ropes and cables
wicks for fire dancing
optical fiber cable systems
sail cloth (not necessarily racing boat sails)
sporting goods
drumheads
wind instrument reeds, such as the Fibracell
brandspeaker woofers
boathull material
fiber reinforced concrete
reinforced thermoplastic pipes
tennis strings (e.g. by Ashaway and Prince tennis companies)
hockey sticks (normally in composition with such materials as wood and carbon)

Polyurethane

A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane (carbamate) links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization by reacting a monomer containing at least two isocyanate functional groups with another monomer containing at least two hydroxyl (alcohol) groups in the presence of a catalyst.

Raw materials

For the manufacture of polyurethane polymers, two groups of at least bifunctional substances are needed as reactants; compounds with isocyanate groups, and compounds with active hydrogen atoms. The physical and chemical character, structure, and molecular size of these compounds influence the polymerization reaction, as well as ease of processing and final physical properties of the finished polyurethane. In addition, additive such as catalysts, surfactants, blowing agents, cross linkers, flame retardants, light stabilizers, and fillers are used to control and modify the reaction process and performance characteristics of the polymer.

Production

The main polyurethane producing reaction is between a diisocyanate (aromatic and aliphatic types are available) and a polyol, typically a polypropylene glycol or polyester polyol, in the presence of catalysts and materials for controlling the cell structure, (surfactants) in the case of foams. Polyurethane can be made in a variety of densities and hardnesses by varying the type of monomer(s) used and adding other substances to modify their characteristics, notably density, or enhance their performance. Other additives can be used to improve the fire performance, stability in difficult chemical environments and other properties of the polyurethane products.

Though the properties of the polyurethane are determined mainly by the choice of polyol, the diisocyanate exerts some influence, and must be suited to the application. The cure rate is influenced by the functional group reactivity and the number of functional isocyanate groups. The mechanical properties are influenced by the functionality and the molecular shape. The choice of diisocyanate also affects the stability of the polyurethane upon exposure to light. Polyurethanes made with aromatic diisocyanates yellow with exposure to light, whereas those made with aliphatic diisocyanates are stable.[24]

Softer, elastic, and more flexible polyurethanes result when linear difunctional polyethylene glycol segments, commonly called polyether polyols, are used to create the urethane links. This strategy is used to make spandex elastomeric fibers and soft rubber parts, as well as foam rubber. More rigid products result if polyfunctional polyols are used, as these create a three-dimensional cross-linked structure which, again, can be in the form of a low-density foam.

An even more rigid foam can be made with the use of specialty trimerization catalysts which create cyclic structures within the foam matrix, giving a harder, more thermally stable structure, designated as polyisocyanurate foams. Such properties are desired in rigid foam products used in the construction sector.

Careful control of viscoelastic properties – by modifying the catalysts and polyols used -can lead to memory foam, which is much softer at skin temperature than at room temperature.

There are then two main foam variants: one in which most of the foam bubbles (cells) remain closed, and the gas(es) remains trapped, the other being systems which have mostly open cells, resulting after a critical stage in the foam-making process (if cells did not form, or became open too soon, foam would not be created). This is a vitally important process: if the flexible foams have closed cells, their softness is severely compromised, they become pneumatic in feel, rather than soft; so, generally speaking, flexible foams are required to be open-celled.

The opposite is the case with most rigid foams. Here, retention of the cell gas is desired since this gas (especially the fluorocarbons referred to above) gives the foams their key characteristic: high thermal insulation performance.

A third foam variant, called microcellular foam, yields the tough elastomeric materials typically experienced in the coverings of car steering wheels and other interior automotive components.
Manufacturing

The methods of manufacturing polyurethane finished goods range from small, hand pour piece-part operations to large, high-volume bunstock and boardstock production lines. Regardless of the end-product, the manufacturing principle is the same: to meter the liquid isocyanate and resin blend at a specified stoichiometric ratio, mix them together until a homogeneous blend is obtained, dispense the reacting liquid into a mold or on to a surface, wait until it cures, then demold the finished part.

Dispense Equipment Although the capital outlay can be high, it is desirable to use a meter-mix or dispense unit for even low-volume production operations that require a steady output of finished parts. Dispense equipment consists of material holding (day) tanks, metering pumps, a mix head, and a control unit. Often, a conditioning or heater-chiller unit is added to control material temperature in order to improve mix efficiency, cure rate, and to reduce process variability. Choice of dispense equipment components depends on shot size, throughput, material characteristics such as viscosity and filler content, and process control.

Material day tanks may be single to hundreds of gallons in size, and may be supplied directly from drums, IBCs (intermediate bulk containers, such as totes), or bulk storage tanks. They may incorporate level sensors, conditioning jackets, and mixers. Pumps can be sized to meter in single grams per second up to hundreds of pounds per minute. They can be rotary, gear, or piston pumps, or can be specially hardened lance pumps to meter liquids containing highly abrasive fillers such as wollastonite.

The pumps can drive low-pressure (10 to 30 bar) or high-pressure (125 to 200 bar) dispense systems. Mix heads can be simple static mix tubes, rotary element mixers, low-pressure dynamic mixers, or high-pressure hydraulically actuated direct impingement mixers. Control units may have basic on/off – dispense/stop switches, and analogue pressure and temperature gages, or may be computer controlled with flow meters to electronically calibrate mix ratio, digital temperature and level sensors, and a full suite of statistical process control software. Add-ons to dispense equipment include nucleation or gas injection units, and third or fourth stream capability for adding pigments or metering in supplemental additive packages.
Tooling

Distinct from pour-in-place, bun and boardstock, and coating applications, the production of piece parts requires some type of tooling to contain and form the reacting liquid. The choice of mold making material is dependent on the expected number of uses to end-of-life (EOL), molding pressure, flexibility, and heat transfer characteristics. RTV silicone is used for tooling that has an EOL in the thousands of parts. It is typically used for molding rigid foam parts, where the ability to stretch and peel the mold around undercuts is needed.

The heat transfer characteristic of RTV silicone tooling is poor. High-performance flexible polyurethane elastomers are also used in this way. Epoxy, metal-filled epoxy, and metal-coated epoxy is used for tooling that has an EOL in the tens-of-thousands of parts. It is typically used for molding flexible foam cushions and seating, integral skin and microcellular foam padding, and shallow-draft RIM bezels and fascia. The heat transfer characteristic of epoxy tooling is fair; the heat transfer characteristic of metal-filled and metal-coated epoxy is good. Copper tubing can be incorporated into the body of the tool, allowing hot water to circulate and heat the mold surface.

Aluminum is used for tooling that has an EOL in the hundreds-of-thousands of parts. It is typically used for molding microcellular foam gasketing and cast elastomer parts, and is milled or extruded into shape. Mirror finish stainless steel is used for tooling that imparts a glossy appearance to the finished part. The heat transfer characteristic of metal tooling is excellent. Finally, molded or milled polypropylene is used to create low-volume tooling for molded gasket applications. Instead of many expensive metal molds, low-cost plastic tooling can be formed from a single metal master, which also allows greater design flexibility. The heat transfer characteristic of polypropylene tooling is poor, which must be taken into consideration during the formulation process.
Polyurethane uses

Polyurethane products have many uses. Over three quarters of the global consumption of polyurethane products is in the form of foams, with flexible and rigid types being roughly equal in market size. In both cases, the foam is usually behind other materials:

Flexible foams are behind upholstery fabrics in commercial and domestic furniture
Rigid foams are inside the metal and plastic walls of most refrigerators and freezers, or behind paper, metals and other surface materials in the case of thermal insulation panels in the construction sector.

Its use in garments is growing:

In lining the cups of brassieres.
Polyurethane is also used for moldings which include door frames, columns, balusters, window headers, pediments, medallions and rosettes.
Polyurethane is also used in the concrete construction industry to create formliners. Polyurethane formliners serves as a mold for concrete, creating a variety of textures and art.

The precursors of expanding polyurethane foam are available in many forms, for use in insulation, sound deadening, flotation, industrial coatings, packing material, and even cast-in-place upholstery padding. Since they adhere to most surfaces and automatically fill voids, they have become quite popular in these applications

Fashion Modeling Overview and Information

Fashion Modeling

Fashion Modeling is recognized from other kinds of public performance, such as an performing, moving or mime art, although the border is not well identified. Showing in a movie or a play is usually not regarded to be fashion modelling, regardless of the nature of the part. However, versions usually have to communicate sentiment in their pictures, and many versions have also described themselves as stars. Models are usually not expected to vocally communicate themselves unless to creatively enhance a picture through the screen of extreme sentiment.

Types of Fashion Modeling include charm fashion modeling, health fashion modeling, bikinis fashion modeling, fine art fashion modeling, and body-part fashion modeling.

Fashion Modeling may be used to screen and enhance outfits. Fashion modelling may include designer or driveway modelling or content modeling, masking photography for journal propagates, ad activities, lists, list etc. The focus of favor photography is on the clothes or accessories, not the model. Style versions may be used to screen or enhance various kinds of outfits, such as underwear, swimwear, brazilian bikinis, etc. Other versions of fashion modelling may be used in shop, fit modelling, health or fantastic modelling. Some are used for tiny modeling or plus-size modeling.

ASTM International Standards Overview

ASTM

ASTM provide the specifications and test methods for the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of textiles, fabrics, and cloths, as well as the natural and artificial fibers that constitute them. The textiles covered by these ASTM Standards are commonly formed by weaving, knitting, or spinning together fibers such as glass fiber strands, wool and other animal fibers, cotton and other plant-derived fibers, yarn, sewing threads, and mohair, to name a few.

ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM International world headquarters are located in West Conshohocken, Pa. The Society also has offices in Belgium, Canada, China, Mexico and Washington, D.C.

ASTM’s leadership in international standards development is driven by the contributions of its members more than 30,000 of the world’s top technical experts and business professionals representing 150 countries. Working in an open and transparent process and using ASTM’s advanced electronic infrastructure, ASTM members deliver the test methods, specifications, guides and practices that support industries and governments worldwide. Learn more about ASTM International.

These ASTM Standards help fabric and cloth designers and manufacturers in testing textiles to ensure acceptable characteristics towards proper end-use.

Some Standards Include

  • Fiber identification
  • Qualitative textile analysis
  • Flammability of apparel textiles
  • Differential dyeing of cotton
  • Extractable matter determination
  • Moisture regain
  • Shrinkage test for Apparels
  • Moisture level in textiles
  • Bulk determination for textured yarns
  • Bow and skewness test for woven and knitted fabric

Jacquard Loom and Functionality of Jacquard Looms

Jacquard Loom

The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard, first demonstrated in 1801, that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask and matelasse. It was controlled by a chain of cards, a number of punched cards, laced together into a continuous sequence. Multiple rows of holes were punched on each card, with one complete card corresponding to one row of the design. Several such paper cards are generally white in color. Chains, like the much later paper tape, allowed sequences of any length to be constructed, not limited by the size of a card.

Each position in the card corresponds to a Bolus hook, which can either be raised or stopped dependent on whether the hole is punched out of the card or the card is solid. The hook raises or lowers the harness, which carries and guides the warp thread so that the weft will either lie above or below it. The sequence of raised and lowered threads is what creates the pattern. Each hook can be connected to a number of threads, allowing more than one repeat of a pattern. Jacquard loom with a 400 hook head might have four threads connected to each hook, resulting in a fabric that is 1600 warp ends wide with four repeats of the weave going across.

Jacquard loom while relatively common in the textile industry, are not as ubiquitous as dobby looms which are usually faster and much cheaper to operate. However, unlike jacquard loom, they are not capable of producing so many different weaves from one warp. Modern jacquard loom is controlled by computers in place of the original punched cards, and can have thousands of hooks.

The threading of a Jacquard loom is so labor-intensive that many looms are threaded only once. Subsequent warps are then tied in to the existing warp with the help of a knotting robot which ties each new thread on individually. Even for a small loom with only a few thousand warp ends the process of re-threading can take days.

The Jacquard loom was the first machine to use punched cards to control a sequence of operations. Although it did no computation based on them, it is considered an important step in the history of computing hardware. The ability to change the pattern of the Jacquard loom weave by simply changing cards was an important conceptual precursor to the development of computer programming.

Opal Stone Meaning, Birthstone and Color

Opal

Opal is a precious gemstone and is often regarded as the symbol of happiness, hope, and genuineness. It has hundred of diverse varieties as well as trade names. However, the list comprising the names of the more accepted ones and the regularly used ones is a bit shorter. Precious Opal is the most widely used one and these are basically translucent to transparent and is notable with a mixture of pearly to milky opalescence and with a striking play of various colors. These vibrant colors flash and change when the stone is viewed from diverse directions and is caused by the interference of light along minute cracks and other internal homogeneities. It is broadly used as a gemstone.

Types

A variety of forms of widespread Opal Stone are extensively mined for use as insulation media, abrasives, and ceramic ingredients. Color modifiers like black, pinks, white, and blue, further sub-divide this gemstone by describing the body color. Fire opal that is the reddish-yellow, orange, bright red or brownish-red body colored is considered as the second most significant opal commercially.

Color

Basically this precious stone is colorless, but it is rare to found. Some dispersed impurities usually give the Opal Color that vary from yellows and reds. Further, the various white and grey Opal Color can be attributed to large quantity of minute gas-filled hollow space in them. The precious opal depicts light with a magnificent play of some wonderful colors across the visible range, red Opal Color being the most valued. Moreover, crystal opal has got a colorless backdrop and displays excellent play of color, but, not like black or white opal, it lets the light pass through it. It is said that Opal along with tourmaline is known as the birthstones of Libra. Interestingly, it is said to be the anniversary gemstone for the 14th and 18th years of marriage anniversary. It is fragile, heat sensitive, and breaks and scratches easily.

Pattern Grading, Grading Plan Overview

Pattern Grading

Pattern Grading – Pattern initially is made in only one size. In order to produce clothing that fits various body types and sizes, the pattern pieces must be increased or decreased geometrically to create a complete range of sizes. The process of resizing the initial pattern is called Pattern Grading. Each company determines its own grade specifications for each size, and size specifications vary slightly from manufacturer to manufacturer.

Pattern Grading – Although many small firms still use traditional grading methods, grading, like pattern making, is becoming increasingly computerized. Using a CAD system, the pattern can be resized according to a predetermined table of sizing increments (or grade rules). The computerized plotter can then print out the pattern in each size. Because the productivity gains are so great, small- to medium-sized manufacturers are beginning to acquire their own CAD systems for grading.

Alternatively, they may use an outside grading service to perform this function.

Pattern Grading – How to Grade Patterns

Grading a pattern is really scaling a pattern up or down in order to adjust it for multiple sizes. Industries use this technique, first by making a pattern in a standard proportioned size using a model, and then adjusting the size for others in even calculated measurements. This is generally how we get S M L XL XXL sizing. Many plus size clothing companies size from plus size models and grade accordingly. This offers a better fit for plus size wearers instead of grading to plus from a straight size.

Pattern Grading – A true way to see grading a pattern is on modern patterns, where they build multiple sizes in one pattern. You see where they scale armholes, the chest, the neck and shoulders; all crucial areas for getting a great fit. Those patterns are great learning tools.

Pattern Grading – Now, you may notice that you get something and it fits great around the a waist, but the bust is too big, or the chest is fine, but the arms are too tight, etc. Grading is a standard, not precise to the wearer, cause we are all different.

Pattern Grading – Grading Plan

Pattern Grading Plan involves using a master pattern and moving it according to a set of grading rules and measurements that are predetermined by industry and other bodies to increase or decrease the size but to retain the proportion of the original master pattern. As a grader you must prepare a grading plan to allow for proportional distribution of measurements, according to the style or design of the master pattern.

Pattern Grading plan is then followed by the Pattern Grader who moves the master pattern, marking in all the grading points. All pattern movements are of 90deg to either the Centre Front, Centre Back or Straight Grain of all pattern pieces. A circular path (either clockwise or anticlockwise) is followed when marking grading points. Then finally these points are blended together to produce a pattern piece/s of the required size.

Pattern Grading Methods

patterns may be graded with all sizes showing on the one sheet. This is called a Nest and finished pattern pieces will be taken from this at a later stage. Some of the commercial patterns are sold in this manner with sizes grouped together in a nest.

Another method of Pattern Grading allows for the pattern to be graded one size at a time, the new pattern piece cut out and then used to make the next size etc. This is the method that I use all the time, I find that it works the best for me.

There is also another way to Pattern Grading and that by using the master pattern to make all the sizes without cutting each one out first. So you would use for example the master pattern size 10 to make 8,12, 14, 16, without cutting out the previous size always using the master patterns.

Before beginning to Pattern Grading it is important to check the accuracy of the pattern, the amount of pieces and the pattern markings of the master patterns.

Beauty Schools in India

Beauty Schools in India

Shahnaz Husian International Beauty Academy

Address : M 106, Greater Kailash -1 , New Delhi – 110048

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Phone : 011-41634487 , 29234338

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : School Leaving Certificate

Duration : 3 to 4 months

2 . Course Name – Diploma in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : 10 + 2

Duration : 2 months

Anoos International Beauty School,Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh

Anoo’s is an international beauty school located in Hyderabad. Anoo’s is the brainchild of four sisters Ms. Anuradha, Ms. Annapurna, Ms. Anupama and Ms. Anirudha, whose first two letters in their names are `Anu` hence the name `Anoo’s`. These four sisters are popularly known as Anoo’s sisters who are licensed estheticans.

address:

Plot No. 90, 5th Floor, Sai Plaza,

Red Rose Cafe Lane, Punjagutta Main Road,

Sangeet Nagar, Somajiguda, Hyderabad – 82.

Phone: +91- 40 233 99906/99810.

Email : anoos@anoos.com

WebSite : http://anoos.com/

Butic College of Beauty,Mumbai, Maharashtra

Butic is a chain of beauty parlors with an enviable reputation of over 40 years in the field of beauty therapy, beauty education, beauty products, and cosmetology. Butic has been established by Maya Paranjapye, a renowned Cosme-tologist from India

Contact Details

Mumbai

1, Rupardarshini,

Lt.Dilip Gupte Marg,

Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016.

Phone: 91 – 22 – 2445 2873

Pune

Ish Kripa,219, Sadashiv Peth, Pune – 411 030.

Phone: 2433 5487

Email : mayabutic@mtnl.net.in

WebSite : http://www.butic.com

Christine Valmy International School of Esthetics,Mumbai, Maharashtra

Christine Valmy Inc. is renowned worldwide for Natural Skin Care products and Esthetic Education Institutes, with an established presence in Europe, the Americas, the Middle and the Far East.

Contact Details

Mumbai

2nd Floor, Landmark, Pali Naka Road, Bandra (W), Mumbai – 400 050

Tel: 91-22-26403296, Fax: 91-22-26403298

Email : info@christinevalmyindia.com

WebSite : http://www.christinevalmyindia.com

Enrich Salon & Academy,Mumbai, Maharashtra

Enrich was started in 1997, with Mulund as its first location. As we evolved and brought a whole spectrum of professional hair and skin care services under one roof, we are now a one stop destination for grooming and personal care. It made us a commercial success story with many brands trying to emulate us.

Contact Details

Mumbai

G-1/2, Sheraton Classic, Charatsingh Colony, Chakala, Andheri-East Mumbai- 400 093

Ph. 40738000 / 05 9821542037

Email : education@enrichsalon.com

WebSite : http://www.enrichsalon.com

LTA School of Beauty,Mumbai, Maharashtra

LTA School of Beauty is set up with an intention in the beauty industry which promises to be the best than any other beauty schools. The academy is set up with an intention of offering high quality beauty education at an affordable price.

Contact Details

Mumbai

LTA-School Of Beauty A-102, Prathana Star,

Swami Nityanand Marg, SaharRoad, Andheri(E),

Mumbai 400 069 India.

Phone : +91-22-32573032 +91-22-65200479

Email : vaishali.k@ltaindia.org

WebSite : http://www.ltaindia.org

Nalini Hair Academy,Mumbai, Maharashtra

A pioneer in the field of hairdressing in the country and founder of the Academy, Nalini had a dream and a vision 35 years ago to run a professional Salon with education as its main focus. Before that there was no salon with professional hairdressing and the need for the same was glaringly visible.

Contact Details

Mumbai

Bholenath Plaza, CTS 1238,

Guru Nanak Road,

Near Bandra Talao,

Bandra West, Mumbai – 400 050.

Tel : 91-22-65100232

Mobile : 9819409230/9819932583/9820641433

Email : education@nalini.in

WebSite : http://www.nalini.in

Shahnaz Husain’s Beauty Institutes,Delhi/NCR, Delhi

Over the last three decades, Shahnaz Husain’s Beauty Institutes have remained committed to excellence, offering professional beauty courses of the highest order, in keeping with international standards, both for women and men.

Contact Details

Delhi/NCR

IInd Floor, Kohinoor Mall,

Masjid Moth (on Savitri Cinema Road),

Greater Kailash II, New Delhi 110048.

Ph. +91 11 24538174 / 40644236

Durgapur 1st J.M Sengupta Road C/S-3,

Durgapur-5, West Bengal.

Ph. 098332222273

Secunderabad

Golden Hawk Complex, P.G. Road (Near Sind Bank)

Secunderabad – 500003

Ph. +91 40-3242884

Email : training@shahnaz.in

WebSite : http://www.shahnazinstitute.in

VLCC Institute of Beauty, Health and Management

Gurgaon,Mumbai,Jaipur,Haryana,Patna,Ludhiana,Lucknow,Gorakhpur,

Ahmedabad,Chandigarh,Coimbatore,Kolkata,Hyderabad.

Contact Details:

Name of the Person :Rashi Narula

Contact No. : 02232198201, 9321556624, 02232198200

Email : institute3.mum@vlcc.co.in

Website : www.vlccinstitute.com

Address : Building no- 6, Sri Krishna co-op Housing Society.. Opp., Panchsheel Residency.

New Mahavir Nagar. Kandivalli West Mumbai,India Pincode : 400067

Schnell Hans International School of Beauty, Hair Dressing, Cosmetology & Onychology, Mumbai

Contact Details:

Name of the Person :Schnell Hans

Contact No. : 02222832499

Website : www.rbcsgrpup.com

Address : chnell Hans Mahim Radio Bhuvan,

Chhotani Road., Opp. Garden, Stn (W) Mumbai 440 016

Phone No : (+91) 022-24451220 / 24467661 Mumbai,India

Pincode : 440016

Alps Academy of Hair Designing & Beauty

Alps Academy of Hair Designing & Beauty was a long cherished dream of Mrs. Taneja which culminated & turned into reality. An expert in aromatherapy, magneto therapy and ayurveda among other beauty sciences Mrs. Bharti is admired for her unique beauty treatments and services that incorporate the latest advancements in cosmetology with the ancient wisdom of ayurveda and aromatherapy

Contact Details:

Contact No. : 41720447 Address : I84Part 2Lajpat NagarDelhi – 110024

Landmark: Near Bikaner Sweet Delhi,India

Pincode : 110024

Indo-Canadian National Academy (ICNA)

Contact Details:

Contact No. : 02226489868, 09769773090

Email : icnainfo@gmail.com

Website : http://www.icna.in

Address : 1st & 2nd Floor,

128, S.V. Road, Opp. Old Khar Masjid,

Khar (W), Mumbai,India

Pincode : 400052

Lakme Training Academy

Delhi,Mumbai.

Contact Details:

Contact No. : 9871309307, 9810831954

Website : http://www.lakmetrainingacademy.com

Address : A – 262/2, Derawala Nagar, Delhi,India

Pincode : 100009

Contact Details:

Contact No. : 9321506404, 9322886448

Address : 1st Floor, Shreeniwas House, H. Somani Marg,

Next to MTNL office (Behind Bombay Gymkhana) Mumbai,India Pincode : 400001

Institute of Nail Technology

Dr. Kavita Sheth is a physician and has completed her L.C.E.H (BOM). She practiced medicine for 8 – 9 years before she went to USA in 2001 to complete her nail tech course. She has done her nail technology from Chicago Illinois state. Now she has the 1st full service nail salon ”Kavi’s Nail Care’ started in 2001.

Contact Details:

Name of the Person :Institute of Nail Technology

Contact No. : 2226051609, 9820444171

Email : nailtech@kavisnailcare.com

Website : http://www.kavisnailcare.com

Address : Mayur Building, Tilak Road,

Near Asha Parekh Hospital, Santacruz (West),

Mumbai,India Pincode : 400054

Academy of Hair Styling

Address : Yari Road, Versova, Andheri , Mumbai – 400102

District : Mumbai ( Maharashtra )

Phone : Fax : Mobile : 9867126303

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : 10+2

Duration : 3-6 months

Other Details : A course on Hair Styling trains an individual in the following areas of ; * Shampoo and scalp treatment. * Braiding, curling, finger waving & sectioning of hair. * Knowledge about Trichology and pH scale. * Roller setting of hair. * Hair cutting techniques using clippers, razors, shears etc. * Application of wigs and hair extensors. * Hair coloring and perming. * Hair waving

Avinashilingam University for Women

Address : Mettupalayam Road , Coimbatore – 641043

District : Coimbatore ( Tamil Nadu )

Phone : 0422-2440241, 2435550

Fax : 0422-2438786.

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : 10+2

Community Polytechnic

Address : The National Institute for Integrated Rural Development and Transfer of Technology,

Village & Post Office Palahi,

Near Phagwara , Kapurthala – 144403

District : Kapurthala ( Punjab )

Phone : 01824-228533, 228659

Fax : 01824- 228533

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : 10th

Duration : 1 year

Eves Beauty and Hair Academy

Address : 194, B-Block, Lajpat Nagar , New Delhi

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Phone : 011-41727088

Mobile : 9811536559

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 3 months / 5 hours a day / 5 days a week

2 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 2 months / 5 hours a day / 5 days a week

Government Polytechnic for Women

Address : Adyar , Chennai

District : Chennai ( Tamil Nadu )

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 1 year

Habib’s Hair Academy

Address : 203/A, Anupam Garden,

Neb Sarai, Sainik Farm , New Delhi – 110049

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Phone : 011-26516786, 26517786

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 3 months

2 . Course Name – Intensive Course on Hair Styling and Beauty

Duration : 6 months

3 . Course Name – Special Course on Chemical Hair Processes

Duration : 1 week

I.T.I. for Women

Address : Curzon Road , New Delhi

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 1 year

International Polytechnic for Women

Address : SCO 447-48, Sector 35 , Chandigarh – 160022

District : Chandigarh ( Chandigarh )

Phone : 0172-2661156

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

Course Name – Post Graduate Diploma in Beauty Technology and Cosmetology

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 1 year

Mc31 Salon and Academy

Address : shop no2&3, green wood appartment, new link road,

chikuwadi borivali (west) , Mumbai – 400092

District : Mumbai ( Maharashtra )

Phone : 022-28993777

Mobile : 09892977135

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : 10 th

Duration : 3 month

New Institute of Fashion Design (N.I.F.D.)

Address : Basharatpur, Kharaiya Pokhra, Medical Road , Gorakhpur – 273001

District : Gorakhpur ( Uttar Pradesh )

Phone : 0551-6452568

Mobile : 09415282496, 09935462169

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : 10+2

Duration : 6 month

Pivot Point

Address : #32, De’Monte Colony,

T.T.K Road, Alwarpet , Chennai – 600018

District : Chennai ( Tamil Nadu )

Phone : 044-2467 1752 / 2467 1753

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 2 to 12 weeks

2 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 3 to 10 weeks

Pivot Point Beauty School

Address : J-1 (First Floor), Kailash Colony , New Delhi – 110048

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Phone : 011-26448427, 26239542

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 3 to 10 weeks

Regional Vocational Training Institute (R.V.T.I.) for Women

Address : Kashinath Dhru Street,

Dadar (west) , Mumbai – 400028

District : Mumbai ( Maharashtra )

Phone : 022-24223962

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Diploma in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : Pass Matriculation or 10th class under 10+2 system with Science, including Life Science

Duration : 1 year

Schnell Hans Beauty School

Address : 111, Mistry Chambers , Colaba – 400005

District : Mumbai ( Maharashtra )

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 2 months, twice a week, mornings / afternoons

2 . Course Name – Diploma in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 5 months

Shahnaz Husian International Beauty Academy

Address : M 106, Greater Kailash -1 , New Delhi – 110048

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Phone : 011-41634487 , 29234338

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : School Leaving Certificate

Duration : 3 to 4 months

2 . Course Name – Diploma in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : 10 + 2 Duration : 2 months

Smiles

Address : A 160, Azad Nagar, MIG Colony,

Veera Desai Road , Andheri (W)

District : Mumbai ( Maharashtra )

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : School Leaving Certificate

South Delhi Polytechnic for Women

Address : Behind Lady Sri Ram College,

Lajpat Nagar IV , New Delhi – 110024

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Phone : 011-26294833, 26294836, 26482298

Fax : 011-26474425

Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 1 year

V. Care’s Global Institute of Health Sciences

Address : 15, New Giri Road,

Off GN Chetty Road,T.Nagar , Chennai – 600017

District : Chennai ( Tamil Nadu )

Phone : 044-28340077, 28340940

Fax : 044-28345562

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 6 months

2 . Course Name – Certificate Course in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 6 months

3 . Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Duration : 12 months/ 3 months

4 . Course Name – Diploma in Hair Dressing

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 3 months

Vivid Techno

Address : WA-11, 2nd Floor, Shakarpur , New Delhi – 110092

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Phone : 011-22469986

Fax : Mobile : 09911656591

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Foundation course in Beauty Management

Duration : 1 Year

Women’s Polytechnic

Address : Kashmiri Gate , New Delhi

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 1 year

Women’s Technical Training Institute

Address : YWCA, Asoka Road , New Delhi

District : Delhi ( Delhi )

Course(s) Offered by the Institution

1 . Course Name – Diploma in Beauty Therapy

Eligibility : Matriculate or 10 + 2

Duration : 1 year

Silver Jewelry, History, Types, Pendants, Bracelets, Earrings, Necklace, Rings

Silver Jewelry | Silver Jewelry History | Silver Jewelry Types

Every woman loves the look of the silver jewely with a monogrammed tag or charm. and these jewelry pieces makes a great gift, because you are sure to find a perfect piece to suit the unique style of each of your friends or loved ones. There is something out there for every taste, whether your friends are more classic, preppy, funky, or earthy. Silver jewelry is very reasonably priced, so you can splurge on the whole set of jewelry to really make a splash.

In Indian culture, Gold is given preference over the silver when it comes to Jewelry. Gold being an expensive metal always, its use is limited to upper elite classes and royals only. Silver is relatively cheaper than gold and is available to common people. It has its own charm and beauty.

In earlier times, silver was used in various ornaments like a belt and an armlet worn around arms, bracelets, bangles, anklets and much more. Most of these items are still worn by women as part of customs in rural India. Besides this, there are many items which are made of silver like utensils, decorative and idols of God and Goddesses. Most poplar piece of it is anklet. Anklet is worn by most of the women and girls.

However, in urban India, silver Jewelry is worn to make a fashion statement rather than to follow customs. With prices ever on increase, gold is getting out of reach of even middle class people. At the same time, people are suffering from economic crisis looming world over. However, despite all these conditions, fashion can not be ignored. Instead of gold, women are getting attracted to cheaper Jewelry made of Silver. Jewelry designers are coming with new range of Jewelry every now and then. Add to this, there is craze for white metal like white gold and platinum in West which makes it even more attractive. There are many Jewelry shops which are dedicated to this kind of jewelry.

You can find jewelry pieces, both for men and women, bracelets, earrings, pendants, rings and stone studded ornament. Most of the Jewelry shops sell all these items.

Silver Pendants

Silver Bracelets

Silver Earrings

Silver Necklace

Silver Rings

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