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Jacobean Embroidery Patterns and Designs

Jacobean Embroidery

Jacobean embroidery refers to embroidery styles that flourished beginning in the reign of King James I of England in first quarter of the seventeenth century.

Jacobean Embroidery is usually used today to describe a form of crewel embroidery used for furnishing characterized by fanciful plant and animal shapes worked in a variety of stitches with two-ply wool yarn on linen. Popular motifs in Jacobean embroidery, especially curtains for bed hangings, are the Tree of Life and stylized forests, usually rendered as exotic plants arising from a landscape or terra firma with birds, stags, squirrels, and other familiar animals.

Early Jacobean embroidery often featured scrolling floral patterns worked in colored silks on linen, a fashion that arose in the earlier Elizabethan era. Embroidered jackets were fashionable for both men and women in the period 1600-1620, and several of these jackets have survived.

While Jacobean designs were sometimes worked in wool, they were also worked in silk and even could include metal threads, and now, these designs are worked in a variety of fibers, often combined to good effect.

It uses a variety of stitches to outline and fill in designs. Chain, stem, basket, double-back, rope and cable stitches are also common.

Panama Clothing and Panama Cloth Uses

Panama Clothing

Panama Clothing is made with a unique fabric made from acrylic/cotton blend fabric. It has the barest trace of shrinkage and is very soft. They are warm and durable. panama clothing can be washed well and ironed at higher temperature with steam iron. Panama Clothing has a property of retaining its body.

Babies cloth is a perfect choice out of panama clothing. Panama hat is very popular in three provinces of Ecuador, namely Manabi, Azuay and Canar. These places have developed distinct and different textures in panama hats.

Cotton Half Panama has a single warp thread and a double weft thread. This heavy Panama fabric is mostly used for interior designs.

Panama Clothing is made of Closely woven fabric of cotton similar to flexible net, wiry and elastic. The Color is usually deep cream. Uses of Panama clothing include in brims and crowns of hats.

The Weave used for panama fabric is basket weave.

Panama Clothing Properties

  • does not shrink.
  • is very soft.
  • is warm.
  • is durable.
  • washes incredibly.
  • retains its body.
  • can be ironed with a hot steamy iron.
  • has a crisp look.


  • is very soft and it is perfect for babies.
  • are preferable fabric by adult too.
  • is very popular because of its thickness and flexibility

Blue Moonstone Meaning, Blue Moonstones Use

Blue Moonstone

The clarity of Blue Moonstone ranges from transparent to translucent. The best moonstone has a blue sheen, perfect clarity, and a colorless body color. In fine qualities it is becoming increasingly short in supply and push up the prices accordingly. Really top quality fine blue Moonstone show an incredible three-dimensional depth of color, which one will see clearly only when playfully tilting the stone and moving it.

It helps facilitate telepathic communicates. With its transparent opalescence, is far rarer than the milky white variety, though both are a type of feldspar. blue moonstone comes primarily from Sri Lanka, where they are faceted. Metaphysically the blue moonstone has been used to help gain clarity of vision through heightened receptivity.

Blue Moonstone One of the most attractive varieaty of the large family of moonstone is the clear type with adularescence blue.

The hardness is 6 . It is Priced according with clarity and size. Blue Moonstone Cabochons are very beautiful and earlier people believed that they could recognize the crescent and waning places of the moon inside it.

It is very oftenly associated with women. As, the magical powers of the stone can reduces the menstrual pain, enhances fertility, makes pregnancy and gives trouble free birth to the child. In Arab countries, there is a long tradition of gifting this stone to the couple to enhance women’s fertility. Moonstone is most compatible with zodiac star Cancer and it is 13 th anniversary stone.

Shoe Making, How to Make Shoes Overview

Shoe Making

Shoe Making – Several operations go into the shoe making. The first and most important of these is the creation of the last. The last is a hand-carved wood or moulded plastic replica of the human foot. The last determines the contour of the arch and how evenly the wearer’s weight will be distributed throughout the foot. A different last is required for each shoe style and size to be produced

For shoe making, as many as thirty-five measurements are taken from a footprint to show the distribution of the body weight. Shoe designing judges the symmetry of the toes, calibrates the girth of the instep and ball of the foot, and calculates the height of the big toe and the contour of the instep. He or she must also estimate how the foot will move inside the shoe. All of these ratios must be addressed without compromising the architectural beauty of the shoe design.

Shoe Making – For a heeled shoe, the maker visualizes the heel height, than determines the size of the throat. Next the appropriate height of the shoe’s quarter is established. If it is too high it will rub the tendons, and if it is too low, the shoe will fail to grip the foot properly.

Shoe Making – Crucial to the fit of a shoe is the measurement of the shank curve, including the ball and instep. This is where the body’s weight falls when the foot is in motion.

Shoe Making – Using the last as a guide, the pattern maker cuts out the shoe upper and lining. The edges are then bevelled to ensure a good fit and the pieces are then sewn together. Next, a toe box is constructed, the counter is added, and the leather is soaked so it will easily conform to the lines of the last.

Shoe Making – The upper is positioned on the last, tautly stretching it before nailing it tightly onto the last. The upper dries on the last for two weeks before the sole and the heel can be attached.

The final steps of Shoe Making are to trim the welt, pare the heel, burnish the sole and add the insole lining. Last the shoe is polished and buffed, and it is ready for sale.

Winding Tension, Bobbin Formation, Speed and Production

Winding Tension

If winding tension is selected properly, the following tensile properties are not affected



Work- to- break

But excessive tension in winding will deteriarate the above said tensile properties.
Characterestics Of Bobbin Formation

Stretch Length

It is the length of the yarn deposited on the bobbin tube during each chase (one up and down movement of ringrail ) of ring rail. The length should be around 3.5 to 5 meters. It should be shorter for coarser yarns and longer for fine yarns.

Winding Ratio

It is the ratio of the length of yarn wound during the upward movement of the ring rail and the length wound during the downward movement of the ringrail.

Bobbin Taper

The ratio of the length of the upper taper of the cop (bobbin with yarn) to the diameter of the bobbin must be 1:2 or greater.

Winding Speed

It depends upon the following factors


Type of Yarn, (type of fibre, average strength and minimum strength)

Type and Charactersitics of Bobbin

Package Taper

Final Use of Package

The best winding speed is the speed which allows the highest level of production possible for a given type of yarn and type of package, and with no damage whatsoever to the yarn.(abrasion and breaks due to excessive tension)
Winding Production

It depends upon the following factors

Winding speed

Time required by the machine to carry out one splicing operation

Bobbin length per bobbin( both bobbin weight and tpi to be considered, because TPI will affect the bobbin length). This decides the number of bobbin changes

The number of faults in the yarn and the clearer settings, this decides the clearer cuts


The number of doffs. It depends upon the doff weight. Higher the doff weight, lower the number of doffs

The time taken for each doff either by the doffer or by an operator

Down time due to red light. It depends upon, number of red lights, number of repeaters setting for red lights, clearer settings like off count channel, cluster setting which will result in red lights and others

Bobbin rejections, it depends on weak yarn, wrong gaiting, double gaiting, bobbin characteritics etc.

How to Make Hemp Oil and Making Hemp Oil

How to Make Hemp Oil

How to Make Hemp Oil – Dry hemp in direct sunlight until it is completely dried. Water and other forms of liquid materials may alter the extraction results.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Place the hemp material in a bucket and pour in just enough isopropyl alcohol solvent in the bucket to dampen the material. Isopropyl alcohol solvent is commonly known as rubbing alcohol. You can purchase it from almost any local pharmacy.

Grind the material in the bucket with a stick or pole that is free of any chemicals, until the leaves are crushed in the bucket.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Add more of the isopropyl alcohol solvent until it just covers the hemp material in the bucket. Use the stick to move the material for about three minutes until it is completely saturated with the solvent.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Drain the solvent into an empty bucket and add fresh solvent to the hemp material. Add just enough to barely cover it and stir with a stick for another three minutes.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Drain off the solvent again into the bucket that you drained the liquid into the first time, leaving the hemp material in the first bucket.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Toss out the plant material that is left in the first bucket and run the drained solvent-oil mixture from the second bucket through a coffee filter into a clean container that holds at least a half gallon.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Pour the filtered solvent-oil mixture into the rice cooker until it is about 3/4 of the way full and then turn the setting on the cooker to high.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Watch the level of the solvent-oil mixture and add more of the filtered mixture into the rice cooker as the solvent is boiled off until you have all the mixture in the cooker.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Add about a teaspoon of water to the mixture as it is nearing the end of the cooking process when you see that it has boiled down to about 1 inch in the cooker.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Pick up the cooker with oven mitts and gradually swill the liquid around to release the last of the alcohol from the mix. Then pour the hemp oil into a stainless steel container and shut off the rice cooker.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Place the stainless steel container with the hemp oil on a coffee warmer and allow it to sit for a couple of hours until you see the bubbling has stopped.

How to Make Hemp Oil – Pour the oil into a bottle and allow it to cool down before using.

Yem Information, Uses, Types and Colors

Yem Information, Uses and Types

Yem is a simple garment with many variations from its basic form, which is a simple, usually diamond or square-cut piece of cloth draped over a woman’s chest with strings to tie at the neck and back. It refers to an ancient Vietnamese bodice used primarily as an undergarment that was once worn by Vietnamese women across all classes.

Yem Uses

While Yem was worn across classes, the material and colors used to make yem varied widely based upon the person’s rank and the occasion of the wearer. Commoner women usually wore it in simple blacks and whites for day to day use, whereas during special occasions they could opt for more festive, brighter colors such as red and pink. Indeed, much of Vietnamese poetry has been dedicated to the beauty of women in their yem da, or pink bodices.

While the bottom of the yem are v-shaped, there were different styles for the top of the garment which covered the neck, the most common two variations being the rounded neck or the v-shaped neck style. Some types have a little pocket within, where women often used to store a little musk or perfume.

Basic Operations in Blow Room

Basic Operations in Blow Room
What is Blow room



Mixing or Blending

Microdust removal

Uniform feed to the carding machine

Recycling the waste

Blow room installations consists of a sequence of different machines to carry out the above said operations.Moreover Since the tuft size of cotton becomes smaller and smaller, the required intensities of processing necessitates different machine configuration

Fire Retardant Textiles and Fire Retardants Uses

Fire Retardant

Fire Retardant are textiles that are naturally more resistant to fire than others through chemical treatment or manufactured fireproof fibers. Fire Retardant Fabric are normally treated to different British Standards. Normally this depends on the end usage of the fabrics.

The concept of the Fire Retardant was possible due to the long research and experiments in the labs for several years. The first priority of the Fire Retardant Fabric is that it should be convenient for the user. That means it should neither be too heavy nor too thin. Also, it should have a nice look that attracts the user. The good news is that such a high quality Fire Retardant fabric is now easily available. The latest Fire Retardant is simply superb in fade and has the longest durability.

Fire Retardant fabric is used in variety of apparel and many others like curtains, sheets and many more. The Fire Retardant fabric is composed of chemicals and other components that make it easily hold in any amount of heat and flame. Also, does not loose the glaze or the quality level for a longer period of time. With the awareness in the masses, it is becoming globally apt clothing and for many other usability. Also, with the pleasant intrusion of the big brands in the flame retardant fabric, has made it the latest trend amidst masses especially younger generation.

Flame Retardant Overview and Flame Retardants

Flame Retardant

Flame retardant is chemical used in thermoplastics, thermosets, textiles and coatings that inhibit or resist the spread of fire. They doesn’t have to be bulky and uncomfortable. It has a professional appearance and fabric that is not only comfortable and breathable, but more importantly, safe and compliant.


Indura Ultra Soft
Nomex IIIA
Nomex AP
PBI Triguard

Flame retardant Fabric is designed to withstand extreme conditions. It is treated with a flame-resistant finish. The basic mechanisms vary depending on the specific flame retardant and the substrate. Additive and reactive flame retardant chemicals can both function in the vapor (gaseous) or condensed (solid) phase. A way to stop spreading of the flame over the material is to create a thermal insulation barrier between the burning and unburned parts.

Flame retardant is typically added to consumer products to meet flammability standards for furniture, textiles, electronics, and insulation. When products with flame retardants reach the end of their usable life, they are typically recycled, incinerated, or landfilled.

The annual consumption is currently over 1.5 million tonnes per year, which is the equivalent of a sales volume of approx. 1.9 billion Euro (2.4 billion US-$). The market is increasing due to rising safety standards worldwide and the increase use of flame retardants.

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