Dickeys Overview and Use of Dickey Garment


Dickeys are a type of false shirt-front – originally known as a detachable bosom – designed to be worn with a tuxedo or men’s white tie, usually attached to the collar and then tucked into the waistcoat or cummerbund.

The invention of Dickeys was to make the bosom front of a full dress shirt a separate entity in itself, like the detachable collar, so it could be laundered and starched more easily unlike a traditional shirt with the bosom attached. The use of these was considered bad style by traditionalists and had fallen out of use but shirts with an attached bosom are now rare in themselves now that traditional evening dress is no longer regularly worn.

Celluloid dickeys were popular for their waterproof and stain-resistant properties. Unlike traditional cloth shirt-fronts, they remained sleek, bright white, and did not wilt or wrinkle. They simulated the look of a formal shirt bib for day and evening wear.

Cloth Dickeys simulate many different styles, some often seen examples include dress shirt front and collar, formal frilled shirt front and most commonly in modern times as false turtleneck sweater fronts. It is also often used in marching band uniforms. Hard plastic dickeys have long since gone out of manufacture and fashion, but cloth turtleneck-style dickeys are still sometimes seen.

Cardboard Dickeys were worn in theater and service professions to save money from using linen formal shirts for uniforms. Examples of professions that used these include waiters, hotel managers, doormen, bellboys, limo drivers, and servants. These are still manufactured in the United States by Amazon Dry Goods.

What is Polar Fleece Made From, Sewing Polar Fleece

What is Polar Fleece

Polar fleece is a soft napped insulating synthetic fabric made from Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or other synthetic fibers. Other names for this fabric are Polar Wool, Vega Wool or Velo Wool, however the names of the composition suggests organic materials being used, fleece is 100% Polyethylene Terephthalate. One of the first forms was Polar Fleece created in 1979 by Malden Mills, now Polartec LLC., a new, light and strong pile fabric meant to mimic and in some ways surpass wool. Fleece has some of wool’s finest qualities but weighs a fraction of the lightest available woollens.

Polar fleece is used in jackets, hats, sweaters, jogging bottoms/sweatpants, gym clothes, hoodies, inexpensive throw blankets, and high-performance outdoor clothing, and can be used as a vegan alternative to wool. It can be made partially from recycled plastic bottles and is very light, soft and easy to wash.

Aaron Feuerstein intentionally declined to patent Polar fleece, allowing the material to be produced cheaply and widely by many vendors, leading to the material’s quick and wide acceptance.

Fleece garments traditionally come in different thickness: micro, 100, 200, and 300, with 300 being the thickest and least flexible.

Polar Fleece is a soft, lightweight, warm and comfortable fabric. It is hydrophobic, holding less than 1% of its weight in water, it retains much of its insulating powers even when wet, and it is highly breathable. These qualities make polar fleece useful for making clothing intended to be used during strenuous physical activity. Perspiration is able to readily pass through the fabric. Polar Fleece is machine washable and dries quickly. It is a good alternative to wool (of particular importance to those who are allergic or sensitive to wool). It can also be made out of recycled PET bottles, or even recycled fleece.

Costing Methods : Job Costing, Batch Costing, Contract or Terminal Costing

Costing Methods : Job Costing, Batch Costing, Contract or Terminal Costing, Single or Output Costing, Process Costing, Operation Costing, Departmental Costing, Multiple Costing

Costing Methods
Job Costing

Job Costing is done, as the name suggests, on job works which may differ from case to case basis. By giving different job numbers and debiting the costs on the jobs, cost of each job work can be ascertained.

Batch Costing

Batch Costing is similar to job costing but pertains to batches.
Contract Costing or Terminal Costing

Contract Costing is done for large contracts. Such businesses need not maintain costs separately as financial accounting will indicate the costs and expenses. In such contracting firms, the cost sheets are maintained for individual contracts. In the absence of expense budgets, inefficiencies are often hidden in such cost sheets.

Single or Output Costing

Single Costing is done when the end product is single like a colliery or a power station. Cost sheets are maintained.

Process Costing

Process Costing is useful when a product passes through various processes, yielding different by products of commercial value. This is useful in industries like refineries.
Operation Costing

Operation Costing is followed by mechanical engineering industries which make products or parts. Each manufacturing operation cost is taken into account. There is no difference between this and process costing.

Operating Costing

Operating Costing method is followed when the company does not have a specific product as output like the service industries.
Departmental Costing

When an end product is ultimately manufactured by different departments this method can be useful.

Multiple Costing

Multiple Costing is useful when a product is manufactured in an assembly line like an automobile. It is important to choose the most appropriate method of costing for your business or industry. Most businesses do not like to engage cost accountants and leave it to financial accountants to take care of this job. It is not recommended. There are many free lance cost accountants available and they can be engaged on need basis.

Classification Of Sizing Machines

Classification Of Sizing Machines
Direct Sizing

Direct sizing is a one step process and can also be referred to as beam to beam sizing. For cases where the warp density is high, the warp sheet is separated into two or three sheets, depending on the number of size boxes, before entering the size bath to ensure more uniform and better penetration and encapsulation of the size. It is recommended by some, to split the warp sheet after exiting the size bath by means of a splitting rod to prevent the groups of ends from becoming displaced, which may cause a stripe effect in the warp. This is known as wet splitting and is mainly due to preventing size bridges from forming. After drying, the sheets are separated by a bursting rod and again by leasing, or splitting, rods before entering the comb area where each individual end is separated and wound on the beam. an ideally sized warp is one in which individual ends are separated from their adjacent ends in the correct order and uniformly spaced across the width of the warp

There are Two Methods of Direct Sizing in a One Step Process

The differences between the two methods include the number of beams going into the process and the method in which the beams were prepared by the warping process. After indirect warping one complete beam, containing all the required number of ends, it is possible to size this beam and produce one sized loom beam. This method, sometimes referred to as beam to beam sizing.

Indirect Sizing

Indirect Sizing is a two step process, involving sizing and beaming. This process, frequently called single end sizing, is generally used for filament yarns. The phrase single end sizing originated because the yarns are sized with equal space, two or three yarn diameters, between them. This meant there is no need to split the yarns after the drying process because the size is encapsulated around each individual yarn. Since there is no cohesion between the yarn ends there will be no formation of size bridges between adjacent yarns .

A size bridge is an accumulation of size that joins two adjacent yarns. The two yarns once separated will break apart the size bridge, exposing unsized areas on the yarns. This causes two effects: increased hairiness of the yarns, in spun yarns only, and hard size from the size bridge which can cause end breaks or defects if woven into the fabric.

Hot Melt Sizing

The technology of hot melt sizing was patented by Burlington Industries and was developed, under agreement, by West Point Foundry and Machine Company . This 1960′s technology was one of the first sizing technologies to provide yarn encapsulation. However, this technology is not widely used today as a sizing technique.

Hot melt sizing is an integration of the warping and sizing processes. It is quite different from that of other traditional warp sizing processes. There are no size boxes or drying sections present in this process. The process begins while the yarns are still in the warping process.A rotating, heated applicator roll, located between the warper creel and the warper, applies a molten, 100% active size to the yarn. The warp yarn is drawn over the grooves of the roll which separate the ends during the size application. The size, in the form of a solid block touching the surface of the roll, begins to melt into the grooves as the heated roll turns and the yarn passes through. The yarn, traveling at a much higher rate of surface speed than the applicator roll, has time to pick up the molten size and which then cools around the yarn before the yarn is wound onto the warper.

Winder Sizing

Winder sizing is the process that most people in the textile industry previously called single end sizing since one yarn end is sized at a time. The sizing winder is used to convert a single unsized, wound package into a sized wound package. More modern sizing winder machines have an individual motor driving system which controls each spindle and yarn pick up device. This allows for greater efficiencies and less downtime. Just like any other standard sizing process, the machine consists of a supply package holder, tensioning device, size application zone, drying zone, and winding zone for the delivery sized package.

Acetate Fabric, Clothing, Properties and Uses

Acetate Fabric

Acetate fabric is a synthetic or manufactured fiber with a silky luxurious appearance. Acetate fabric is derived from wood pulp, and throughout the creation process the pulp is combined with acetate anhydride. Its Characteristics are

  • Acetate fabric wets easily, with good liquid transport and excellent absorption; in textile applications, it provides comfort and absorbency, but also loses strength when wet
  • It has High surface area
  • It is Made from a renewable resource: reforested trees.
  • It Can be composted or incinerated
  • It Can be dyed, however special dyes and pigments are required since acetate does not accept dyes ordinarily used for cotton and rayon (this also allows cross-dyeing)
  • Acetate fabric is Resistant to mold and mildew
  • It is Easily weakened by strong alkaline solutions and strong oxidizing agents.
  • It Can usually be wet cleaned or dry cleaned and generally does not shrink

Acetate Fabric Uses


Acetate Fabric is used in Blouses, Dresses, Linings, Wedding and party attire, Home furnishings, Draperies, Upholstery and slip covers.

High Absorbency Products

Acetate Fabric is used Diapers, Feminine Hygiene Products, Cigarette Filters, Surgical Products, and other filters.

It is a very valuable manufactured fabric that is low in cost and has good draping qualities. Properties of acetate fabric have promoted it as the beauty fabric. It is used to accentuate luster, body, drape and beauty.

Acetate Fabric is soft, smooth, dry, crisp, resilient. The Fabric breathes, wicks, dries quickly, no static cling.

Drape: linings move with the body linings conform to the garment.

Color: deep brilliant shades with atmospheric dyeing meet colorfastness requirements.

The Fabric is light reflection creates a signature appearance.

Performance: colorfast to perspiration staining, colorfast to dry cleaning, air and vapor permeable

Tenacity: weak fiber with breaking tenacity of 1.2 to 1.4 g/d; rapidly loses strength when wet; must be dry cleaned

Abrasion: poor resistance

Heat retention: poor thermal retention; no allergenic potential (hypoallergenic)

Dyeability: cross-dying method where yarns of one fiber and those of another fiber are woven into a fabric in a desired pattern; solution-dying method provides excellent color fastness under the effects of sunlight, perspiration, air contaminants and washing.

Acetate fabric appears to be similar to silk; however, it does not have the same texture or sensation as natural silk fabric. Due to the properties of acetate fabric, it is water resistant, shrink resistant and does not wrinkle easily. Acetate fabric may be used in coats, shirts, jackets, bed sheets and drapes.

Acetate fabric Care

Since acetate fabric does not absorb moisture, most garments are dry-clean only. Knitted acetate garments may be hand washed with warm water. Use mild detergent or soap, and gently scrub the garment. After washing, lay the garment on a flat surface and allow it to air dry.

Textile Finishing Overview and Techniques

Textile Finishing

In textile manufacturing, Textile Finishing refers to any process performed on yarn or fabric after weaving or knitting to improve the look, performance, or hand (feel) of the finished textile or clothing. Some textile finishing techniques, such as fulling, have been in use with hand-weaving for centuries. Others, such as mercerization, are byproducts of the Industrial Revolution.

Textile Finishing Techniques

In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber or fabric, it is customary to subject the material to different types of physical and chemical treatments. For example, wash and wear textile finishing for a cotton fabric is necessary to make it crease-free or wrinkle-free. In a similar way, mercerizing, singeing, flame retardant, water repellent, waterproof, anti-static and peach textile finishing achieve various fabric properties desired by consumers.

The use of 100% synthetic textiles has increased considerably since the development of textured yarns made of filaments, and the growing production of knit goods. The use of open weave has enabled production of lighter, breathable, fabrics to ensure better wearing comfort.

The properties of plastic-based synthetic fibers, most important among them being polyamide, polyester and polyacrylonitrile, are essentially different from those of natural cellulosic and wool fibers. Hence the sequence of finishing operations is likely to be different. While cellulosic fabrics require a resin textile finishing treatment to impart easy-care properties, synthetic fibers already exhibit these easy-care criteria and require only a heat setting operation.

Zipper Types – YKK Zippers, Invisible Zipper

Zipper Types

Zipper Types – Hook and Eye

An early device superficially similar to the zipper, an Automatic, Continuous Clothing Closure, was patented in the United States by Elias Howe in 1851. Unlike the zipper, Howe’s invention had no slider; instead a series of clasps slid freely along both edges to be joined, with each clasp holding the two sides together at whichever pair of points along them it was located. The clasps were joined together by a string, which, when pulled taut, caused the clasps to be evenly spaced along the closure, thus holding the two edges together. Pulling in the other direction caused the clasps to become bunched up at one end, by which means the device was opened. Initial versions of the zipper were based on the “hook and eye” principle, rather than on interlocking teeth, and tended to come apart easily. Some versions depended on constant pressure from one side of the joined fabric in order to hold together at all, which limited applications. In the 1891 version, the slider detached entirely from the zipper when not being used to open or close.

Interlocking Teeth Model

Gideon Sundback, a Swedish-born Canadian immigrant, joined the company, then called the Automatic Hook and Eye Company, in Hoboken, in 1906. At that time the company’s product, still based on hooks and eyes, was called the C-curity Fastener. Sundback developed an improved version of the C-curity, called the Plako, but it too had a strong tendency to pull apart, and wasn’t any more successful than the previous versions. Sundback finally solved the pulling-apart problem in 1913, with his invention of the first version of the zipper based on interlocking teeth, the Hookless Fastener No. 1.

That version, however, had a tendency to wear out quickly, and again was not a commercial success. Finally, in 1914 Sundback developed another version based on interlocking teeth, the Hookless No. 2, which solved the last remaining major design defect, and opened the way to commercial success. The principle is, each tooth is punched to have a dimple on its bottom and a nib or conical projection on its top. The nib atop one tooth engages in the matching dimple in the bottom of the tooth that follows it on the other side as the two strips of teeth are brought together through the two Y channels of the slider. The teeth are crimped tightly to a strong fabric cord that is the selvage edge of the cloth tape that attaches the zipper to the garment, with the teeth on one side offset by half a tooth’s height from those on the other side’s tape. They are held so tightly to the cord and tape that once meshed there is not enough play to let them pull apart – - a tooth cannot rise up off the nib below it enough to break free, and its nib on top cannot drop out of the dimple in the tooth above it. The classic zipper was made of a brass alloy, a metal that has low friction and is long-wearing.

The zipper slowly became popular for children’s clothing and men’s trousers in the 1920s and 1930s. In the early 1930s the haute couture designer Elsa Schiaparelli featured zippers in her avant-garde gowns, helping it to become acceptable in women’s clothing. In 1934, Tadao Yoshida founded a company called San-S Shokai in downtown Tokyo. Later, this company would change its name to YKK Yoshida Kagya Kabushiki-gaisha and become the world’s largest manufacturer of zippers and fastening products. By World War II, the zipper had become widely used in Europe and North America, and after the war quickly spread through the rest of the world.

Today, such global companies as YKK, Olympic Zippers Ltd, Opti, TALON, Ideal, NEO, KCC Group, and Tex Corp, make various types of zippers including invisible zippers, metallic zippers, and plastic zippers.

Over a number of years the they has become extremely common on many of the clothing items that are worn by everyday people all over the world.

Coil Zipper

Coil Zippers now form the bulk of sales of zippers worldwide. The slider runs on two coils on each side; the teeth are the coils. Two basic types of coils are used: one with coils in spiral form, usually with a cord running inside the coils; the other with coils in ladder form, also called the Ruhrmann type. This second type is now used only in a few parts of the world, mainly in South Asia. Coil zippers are made of polyester coil and are thus also known as polyester zippers. Nylon was formerly used and though only polyester is used now, the type is still known as a nylon zipper.

Invisible Zipper

Invisible Zippers teeth are behind the tape. The tape’s color matches the garment’s, as does the slider, so that, except the slider, the zipper is invisible. This kind is common in skirts and dresses. Invisible zippers are usually coil zippers.

Metallic Zipper

Metallic Zipper are the classic zipper type, found mostly in jeans today. The teeth are not a coil, but are individual pieces of metal moulded into shape and set on the zipper tape at regular intervals. Metal zippers are made in brass, aluminium and nickel, according to the metal used for teeth making. All these zippers are basically made from flat wire. A special type of metal zipper is made from pre-formed wire, usually brass but sometimes other metals too. Only a few companies in the world have the technology. These type of pre-formed metal zippers are mainly used in high grade jeanswear, workwear, etc., where high strength is required and zippers need to withstand tough washing.

Plastic-Molded Zipper

Plastic Moulded Zipper are identical to metallic zippers, except that the teeth are plastic instead of metal. Metal zippers can be painted to match the surrounding fabric; plastic zippers can be made in any color of plastic. Plastic zippers mostly use polyacetal resin though other resins are used too like polyethylene.

Open-ended Zipper

Open-ended Zippers use a box and pin mechanism to lock the two sides of the zipper into place, often in jackets. Open-ended zippers can be of any of the above specified types.

Closed-ended Zipper

Closed-ended Zipper are closed at both ends; they are often used in baggage.

Zipper Manufacturing

Japan makes 90% of the world’s zippers. A large part of these are manufactured by YKK, which has production facilities in 68 countries and the world’s largest zipper manufacturing center in Macon, Georgia USA, with 900 employees. Almost all of the rest are made in Southeast Asia. Major zipper manufacturing countries in Southeast Asia are now Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan. These countries are not only manufacturing zippers for domestic use and use in exported products but are exporting zippers directly to other countries as well.

Overview of Looms

Overview of Looms

A loom is a machine or device for weaving thread or yarn into textiles. Looms can range from very small hand-held frames, to large free-standing hand looms, to huge automatic mechanical devices. The ancient Egyptians and Chinese used looms as early as 4000 BC.

In practice, the basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same.
Hand Looms

The first and original loom was vertically twist-weighted types, where threads are hung from a wooden piece or branch or affixed to the floor or ground. The weft threads are manually shoved into position or pushed through a rod that also becomes the shuttle. Raising and lowering each warp thread one by one is needed in the beginning. It is done by inserting a piece of rod to create a shack, the gap between warp threads in order for the woof to easily traverse the whole warp right away.

Ground Looms

Horizontal ground looms permit the warp threads to be chained between a couple of rows of dowels. The weaver needs to bend forward to perform the task easily. Thus, pit looms with warp chained over a ditch are invented to let the weaver have his or her legs positioned below and leveled with the loom.

Back Strap Looms

They are well recognized for their portability. The one end of this loom type is secured around the waist of the weaver and the other end is attached around a fixed thing like door, stake, or tree. Pressure applied can be customized by just bending back.

Frame Looms

Frame looms almost have the similar mechanisms that ground looms hold. The loom was made of rods and panels fastened at the right angles to construct a form similar to a box to make it more handy and manageable. This type of loom is being utilized even until now due to its economy and portability.

Rigid Heddle Looms

These are the crisscross manifold loom types. The back strap looms and frame looms fall under this type. This one normally features one harness, with its heddles attached in the harness. The yarn or thread goes in an alternate manner all the way through a heddle and in the gap between the heddles. In this way, lifting the harness also lifts half of the threads and letting down the harness also drops the same threads. Strands leading through the gaps between the heddles stay in position.

Foot-treadle Floor Looms

Nowadays, hand weavers are likely to employ looms having no less than 4 harnesses. With every harness featuring a set of heddles wherein wool can be strung, and by lifting the harnesses in diverse arrangements, a multiplicity of designs are created. Looms having a couple of harnesses similar to these are applied for knitting tabby, the unvarying weave textiles.

Haute Lisse and Basse Lisse Looms

These are generally employed for knitting conventional tapestry. Haute lisse has the yarn or thread hung straight up between 2 spools. The basse lisse loom has the warp thread stretched out horizontally between spools.

Shuttle Looms

It is the key component of the loom along with the warp beam, shuttle, harnesses, heddles, reed, and take up roll. In the loom, yarn processing includes detaching, battening, alternative, and taking-up operations.

Shuttleless Looms

Because the shuttle can cause yarns to splinter and catch, several types of shuttleless looms have been developed. These operate at higher speeds and reduced noise levels.
Some of the common shuttleless looms include water-jet looms, air-jet looms, rapier looms, and projectile looms.

PU Leather Overview, Characteristics and Uses

PU Leather

PU leather is made from the inner splits of the hide and is finished with a polyurethane coating. With the polyurethane treatment, the leather is made resistant to water penetration and also become a high resistance to scratches. PU leather is soft, durable and easy to care. Upper made of PU coated leather is lightweight and comfortable. Polyurethane Leather is a fast drying leather.

There are varieties of PU leather depending upon the technical standards they are required to meet. The pu coating is also sometimes embossed with a design to give the leather the widest variety of textures.

History of PU Leather

Invented in the late 1800s, early patent leather was heavily impregnated with linseed oil, then coated with a linseed-based lacquer. The oil created some flexibility, while the lacquer imparted the shine.

It is a great bargain for the quality you will obtain at about half the cost of real leather products and will still look awesome in your home.

Characteristics of PU Leather

  • is water-resistant.
  • is resistant to scratches.
  • is soft and durable.
  • is easy to care.
  • is lightweight and comfortable.
  • dries fast.

Uses of PU Leather

  • is used for Upper for shoe
  • is used as Upholstery

Playsuit Overview and Uses in Mainstream Fashion


A playsuit is an item of lingerie consisting of an all in one design where the top half, similar to a negligee, is joined to the bottom half, similar to a panty or shorts. It also exists in mainstream fashion as a type of garment for day or evening wear.

The playsuit, which is typically a shorter version of the jumpsuit, was popular in the 1970′s, and was usually made from silky fabrics for evening wear, or jersey and terry-toweling for casual summer occasions. Since 2006, the playsuit, jumpsuit and catsuit has made a resurgence in mainstream fashion.

Playsuit is a transitional piece that will take you stylishly from season to season. Mesh inserts and chiffon panelling rework the basic playsuit, creating unique styles for AW. Playsuits with embellished detailing and cut out features are perfect for the party season teamed with a pair of platform heels, with bold prints and rich colours adding interest to your wardrobe.

Playsuit may be Hand woven in soft shiny elastic, thick straps caress your curves evoking a sense of entrapment. A single strap licks the centre of the body and around the neck whilst a stunning cage effect pattern adorns the back revealing tantalizing flashes of skin.

Textile, Apparel, Fashion, Beauty, Jewelry, Leather and Footwear

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