Overview of Warping

Overview of Warping

Warping gathers yarns from a number of bobbins and wound them close together on a reel or spool. From there they were transferred to a warp beam, which was then mounted on a loom. Warp threads were those that run lengthwise on the loom.

At warping, the goal should be to avoid missing ends. Number of thread breakages should not exceed seven per 10 million meters. This can be achieved by ensuring a top quality yarn package and by following the warping process parameters mentioned below :

Precise Creel Alignment

Reliable stop motion on creel and on warping drum, so that broken ends are traceable for knotting.

Minimum wobbling of warping beams.

Uniform selvedge with good flanges.

Yarns should by preferably warped on spindle driven machines to avoid thermal damage due to abrasion.

Warping machines such as Benninger or Hacoba are preferable.

With Drum Driven Warpers such as the BC Warper, the following precautionary measures are to be taken :

Frictional drum should be kept in a polished state.

Brake should be ver y efficient.

Aluminium cast flanges should be used to get faulteless selvedges.

Breakages rate should not exceed 0.3~0.5 breaks per 1000 m / 500 ends.

For wider width looms, wider warping machines are preferred.

Types of Labels, Label Production and Styles

Types of Labels

Types of Labels

  • Woven Garment Labels
  • Custom Garment Labels
  • Printed Garment Labels
  • Satin Label
  • Damask Labels
  • Taffeta Labels
  • Cotton Labels
  • Canvas Label
  • Felt Label
  • PVC Label

Types of Labels – Production of Labels

Garment Labels can be made using several fabrics, in different types of finishes and can be attached to the garment in different styles. These decisions depend upon the manufacturer. Labels can be produced as individual pieces or in the form of a continuous roll. When the production is done in the continuous roll form, individual labels are then cut out and attached to the garment.

Types of Labels – Label Fabrics

The fabrics that are commonly used in the preparation of labels are satin, damask, semi-damask and taffeta. In some cases, cotton, canvas and felt are also used in making labels. Satin is the most used fabric in preparing labels. Leather labels are generally used in case of jeans and pants. PVC labels are used in pants and bags. Satin is soft on the skin and looks very pretty initially. However, it is not one of the best fabrics to be used in labels because it is very thin and can snag easily. Labels made using taffeta are stiffer than those of satin and do not snag as easily. However, taffeta labels can irritate the skin of the customers. Damask and semi-damask are ideal fabrics for making labels. Damask labels are soft even after finishing and do not cause any irritation to the customer. Semi-damask is similar to damask in feel, but it costs lesser than damask. Different kinds of finishing can be given to labels made from different fabrics.

Types of Labels – Label Styles

There are several styles in which a label can be attached to a garment

Types of Labels – Centre Folded Style

Centre Folded Style, which is also called a loop label. Usually, such labels have the brand name and/or symbol on the front part, with the materials used as well as care instructions on the back of the label. This style provides the manufacturer with more space, so that all the necessary details can be included. It also takes care of the problem of the back of the label showing.

Types of Labels – End Folded Style

End Folded Style, wherein the left and right sides of the label are tucked behind and stitched on to the garment.

Fuse Cut or Straight Cut Style

Fuse Cut or Straight Cut Style, in which there are no folds and all the ends are sewn on to the garment. This style is also called the all ends finished label.

Types of Labels – Iron-on Label

Iron on Label as the name suggests, is a label that is attached by placing the label on the garment and ironing on it. The heat causes the substance on the back of the label to liquefy and stick to the garment. Such labels are highly durable and stick on in spite of repeated washing of the garment, but the durability is less as compared to a label that has been sewn on to the garment.

Types of Labels – Peel Labels | Stick Labels

Peel Labels or Stick Labels are used in garments. These labels are very easy to apply and can be applied quickly. However, they are not very durable and might begin to peel off after a few washings. They are ideal for use on bags and other items which do not require continuous washing.

Types of Labels – Mitre Fold Label

Mitre Fold Label is a label without any folds, which is cut off at a 45-degree angle at both ends and attached at the top.

Unique Labels

Sometimes, unique labels are used by the manufacturer to give a special touch to the garment and to distinguish it from other brands or manufacturers.

Some of the special types of labels used are:

Types of Labels – Bead Label

This type of label has beads attached to it, either by sewing them on or with the help of glue. The beads may be of a single color or of multiple colors. Such a label gives a unique look to a garment if it is attached to the back or the front portion.

Die Cut Label

A die cut label is a label that is produced using a block or die on account of its unique shape.

Types of Label – Pillow Label

In this type of label, cloth is fashioned into a pillow cover and yarn is injected into it to make the label look like a label. The symbol of the brand and other important instructions are printed or woven onto the cloth. A pillow label can also be used as a zipper pull.

Types of Labels – Studded Label

This type of label has stones stuck on to it to create a unique effect.

Types of Labels – Sequential Numbered Label

Such labels have numbers on each individual label in a sequential manner. This helps in identifying fake products, which have not been produced by the manufacturer Labeling is thus an important consideration for a manufacturer. It is silent advertising’ for the garment. The decisions regarding the fabric of the label and the style should be taken after proper consideration of various factors.

Pineapple Nutrition, Health Benefits, Selection, Storage, Side Effects, Facts, Information

Pineapple Nutrition, Health Benefits of Pineapple, Pineapple Side Effects, Pineapple Facts, Pineapple Information

One of the most prized and popular fruits, pineapple or “ananas” have an interesting history

The pineapple tree is actually native to Paraguay in South America and spread by the local Indians up through South and Central America to the West Indies. Later, it was brought to Spain when Columbus discovered Americas’ in 1493, from where; it has spread around the world on sailing ships (like tomatoes) that carried it for protection against scurvy!

Scientifically, it is known as “Ananas comosus” and belongs to the family of Bromeliaceae, of the genus; Ananas.

Pineapple is a tropical, perennial, drought-tolerant plant that grows up to 5-8 ft in height and spreads around about 3 to 4 ft. It is essentially a short, stout stem with a rosette of waxy with long, needle tipped leaves.

The plant bear long oval to cylindrical fruits during each season lasts from March until June.

The fruit is described as compound (multiple) fruit that develops from many small fruits fused together around central core. It is both juicy and fleshy with the stem serving as the fibrous core. The rough, tough, scaly rind may be dark green, yellow, orange-yellow or reddish when the fruit is ripe. Juicy flesh ranges from creamy white to yellow in color and has mix of sweet and tart taste with rich flavor. Each fruit measures in size up to 12 in. long and weigh 1 to 8 pounds or more.

Health Benefits of Pineapple

  • Fresh pineapple is storehouse of many health promoting compounds, minerals and vitamins that are essential for optimum health.
  • The fruit is low in calories (provides only 50 cal per 100 g), contains no saturated fats or cholesterol; but rich source of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber like pectin.
  • Pineapple fruit contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain that digests food by breaking down protein. Bromelain also has anti-inflammatory, anti-clotting and anti-cancer properties. Studies have shown that consumption of pineapple regularly helps fight against arthritis, indigestion and worm infestation.
  • Fresh ananas is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin; vitamin C. It is required for the collagen synthesis in the body. Collagen is the main structural protein in the body required for maintaining the integrity of blood vessels, skin, organs, and bones. Regular consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps body protect from scurvy; develop resistance against infectious agents (boosts immunity) and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the body.
  • It also contains good amount Vitamin A (provides 58 IU per 100 g) and beta-carotene levels. These compounds are known to have antioxidant properties. Vitamin A is also required maintaining healthy mucus membranes, skin and essential for vision. Studies have suggested that consumption of natural fruits rich in flavonoids helps body to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
  • In addition, this fruit is rich in B-complex group of vitamins like folates, thiamin, pyridoxine, riboflavin and minerals like copper, manganese and potassium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids, helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure. Copper is helpful cofactor for red blood cell synthesis. Manganese is a co-factor for the enzyme superoxide dismutase, which is a very powerful free radical scavenger.

Pineapple Selection and Storage

Pineapple or ananas season lasts from March till June when fresh fruits available in the markets at their best. In the store, choose that are heavy for their size. While larger fruits will have a greater proportion of edible flesh, there is usually no difference in quality between a small and large size pineapple.

Choose fruit that should be free of soft spots, mold, bruises and darkened “eyes,” all of which may indicate that the fruit is past its prime. Some people judge freshness, ripeness and quality by tapping a finger against the side of the fruit. A good, ripe pineapple has a dull, solid sound while immaturity and poor quality are indicated by a hollow thud. It stops ripening as soon as it is picked; therefore, choose a fruit with fragrant sweet smell at the stem end and avoid those that smell musty, sour or fermented.

Ripe ones perish quickly if left at room temperature. Since they are chill sensitive and cannot be stored in the refrigerator for long periods, better use as early as possible. However, if not readily eaten you may place the ripe fruit in the refrigerator for 1-2 days, for later use.

Pineapple Preparation and Serving Method

Pineapple can be cut and peeled in many ways. Usually, the crown and the base of the fruit are chopped off with a knife. Then, to peel the fruit, place its base side down and carefully slice off the skin, carving out any remaining eyes with the tip of your knife. Once the rind is removed, cut the fruit into your desirable sizes.

One may also use pineapple “corers” to make the job easier. While they provide a quick and convenient method for peeling and coring pineapples, sometimes, they result in a waste of good amount of fruit since they often cannot be adjusted for different sized fruits. Similarly, some markets offer devices that will peel and core the ananas, but once again, this process may waste some fruit.

Here are some Serving Tips

  • Fresh ananas sections are a great addition to fruit salads and in toppings.
  • Fresh pineapple juice can be a refreshing intra-day drink.
  • It also used in the preparation of desserts, jams, and jellies.
  • The fruit is used in a variety of delicious pineapple recipes, mainly as a flavoring ingredient.

Pineapple Side Effects

Pineapple fruit contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain that may cause excessive uterine bleeding if consumed in large quantities during pregnancy.

Ketogenic Diet, Definition, Plan, Menu, Plan Menu, Recipes

Ketogenic Diet
What is Ketogenic Diet | Ketogenic Diet Definition

Ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children. The diet mimics aspects of starvation by forcing the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates. Normally, the carbohydrates contained in food are converted into glucose, which is then transported around the body and is particularly important in fuelling brain function. However, if there is very little carbohydrate in the diet, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The ketone bodies pass into the brain and replace glucose as an energy source. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures.
Ketogenic Diet Plan

The original therapeutic diet for pediatric epilepsy provides just enough protein for body growth and repair, and sufficient calories to maintain the correct weight for age and height. This classic ketogenic diet contains a 4:1 ratio by weight of fat to combined protein and carbohydrate. This is achieved by excluding high-carbohydrate foods such as starchy fruits and vegetables, bread, pasta, grains and sugar, while increasing the consumption of foods high in fat such as cream and butter.

Most dietary fat is made of molecules called long-chain triglycerides (LCTs). However, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)—made from fatty acids with shorter carbon chains than LCTs—are more ketogenic. A variant of the classic diet known as the MCT ketogenic diet uses a form of coconut oil, which is rich in MCTs, to provide around half the calories. As less overall fat is needed in this variant of the diet, a greater proportion of carbohydrate and protein can be consumed, allowing a greater variety of food choices.
The diet is effective in half of the patients who try it, and very effective in one third of patients.In 2008, a randomised controlled trial showed a clear benefit for treating refractory epilepsy in children with the ketogenic diet.A treatment of 6 to 24 months duration frequently results in a ≥ 90% decrease or elimination of seizures.

There is some evidence that adults with epilepsy may benefit from the diet, and that a less strict regime, such as a modified Atkins diet, is similarly effective.As of 2008, research in this area is regarded as having provided insufficient positive data to warrant clinical use. Clinical trials and studies in animal models suggest that ketogenic diets provide neuroprotective and disease-modifying benefits for a number of adult neurodegenerative disorders.
Ketogenic Diet Menu | Ketogenic Diet Plan Menu | Ketogenic Diet Recipes

Ketogenic diet is not a balanced diet and only contains tiny portions of fresh fruit and vegetables, fortified cereals and calcium-rich foods. In particular, the B vitamins, calcium and vitamin D must be artificially supplemented. This is achieved by taking two sugar-free supplements designed for the patient’s age: a multivitamin with minerals, and calcium with vitamin D.A typical day of food for a child on a 4:1 ratio, 1,500 kcal (6,300 kJ) ketogenic diet comprises:

Breakfast: egg with bacon
28 g egg, 11 g bacon, 37 g of 36% heavy whipping cream, 23 g butter and 9 g apple.
Snack: peanut butter ball
6 g peanut butter and 9 g butter.
Lunch: tuna salad
28 g tuna fish, 30 g mayonnaise, 10 g celery, 36 g of 36% heavy whipping cream and 15 g lettuce.
Snack: keto yogurt
18 g of 36% heavy whipping cream, 17 g sour cream, 4 g strawberries and artificial sweetener.
Dinner: cheeseburger (no bun)
22 g minced (ground) beef, 10 g American cheese, 26 g butter, 38 g cream, 10 g lettuce and 11 g green beans.
Snack: keto custard
25 g of 36% heavy whipping cream, 9 g egg and pure vanilla flavouring.

DK Weight Yarn Overview and DK Yarn Info

DK Weight Yarn

The weight of DK Weight Yarn falls between worsted and sport weight. It is thinner than worsted weight yarn, but thicker than sport weight yarn.

DK Weight Yarn averages a knit gauge range (4 inches, or 10 centimeters, in stockinette stitch) of 21 to 24 inches on U.S. needles 5 to 7 (3.75 to 4.5 millimeters). DK Weight Yarn also is in the same category as light worsted. A pattern that calls for a light worsted yarn also can use DK Weight Yarn.

The slight difference in weight between DK Weight Yarn and Worsted weight yarn and sport weight yarns allows for a simple substitution into a project that calls for worsted or sport yarn (and the other types of yarns that fall into those categories). If you’re creating a piece that calls for worsted weight yarn, but you want it to be lighter, use DK Weight Yarn. For a project using sport yarn, using DK weight yarn will make the piece a little heavier. Either way, know your gauge so you can adjust the stitch count and stay within the finished size of the piece.

DK Weight Yarn is best used for projects that require a lighter weight yarn such as lightweight sweaters, hats and accessories, and children’s items.

Sash Overview, How to Make a Sash


A sash is a cloth belt used to hold a robe together, and is usually tied about the waist. Decorative sash may pass from the shoulder to the hip rather than around the waist. It is an Arabic loanword that was introduced into the English language in 1590.

In the United States, it has picked up a more ceremonial and less practical purpose. It is used at higher education commencement ceremonies, by high school homecoming parade nominees, in beauty pageants, as well as by corporations to acknowledge high achievement.

In Canada, hand woven sashes were derived from Iroquoiuan carrying belts sometime in the 18th century. As a powerful multi-use tool this sash found use in the fur trade which brought it into the North West. In this period the weave got tighter and size expanded, with some examples more than four meters in length. Colored thread was widely used.

In Ireland, especially Northern Ireland, the it is a symbol of the Orange Order. Orange Order sashes were originally of the ceremonial shoulder-to-hip variety as worn by the British military. Over the 20th century the sash has been mostly replaced by V-shaped collarettes, which are still generally referred to as sashes. The item is celebrated in the song ‘The Sash my Father Wore’.

Sashes are also indicative of holding the class of Grand Cross or Grand Cordon in an Order of Chivalry or Order of Merit.


  • Satin
  • Beaded
  • Wood
  • Silver
  • Silk

Blood Type Diet, Recipes, Plan, O, A, B, AB Diet

Blood Type Diet | The Blood Type Diet
What is Blood Type Diet

The blood type diet is a diet advocated by Peter D’Adamo, a naturopathic physician, and outlined in his book Eat Right 4 Your Type. D’Adamo’s claim is that ABO blood type is the most important factor in determining a healthy diet, and he promotes distinct diets for people with O, A, B, and AB blood types.

Throughout his books D’Adamo cites the works of biochemists and glycobiologists who have researched blood groups, claiming or implying that their research supports this theory. Nevertheless, the consensus among dieticians, physicians, and scientists is that the theory is unsupported by scientific evidence.
Blood Type Diet Recipes | Blood Type Diet Plan

D’Adamo’s premise is that human blood type is key to the body’s ability to differentiate self from non-self. Lectins in foods, he asserts, react differently with each ABO blood type and to a lesser extent with an individual’s secretor status. Lectins which interact with the different ABO type antigens are described as incompatible and harmful, therefore the selection of different foods for A, AB, B, and O types is important to minimize reactions with these lectins.

The evolutionary theory of blood groups, which is also used by D’Adamo, stems from work by William C. Boyd, an immunochemist and blood type anthropologist who made a worldwide survey of the distribution of blood groups. Boyd describes how by genetic analysis of blood groups, human races are populations that differ according to their alleles. On this basis, Boyd divided the world population into 13 geographically distinct races with slightly different frequency distributions of blood group genes.

D’Adamo groups those thirteen races together by ABO blood group, each type within this group having unique dietary recommendations:
Blood Type O Diet

Blood group O is believed by D’Adamo to be the hunter, the earliest human blood group. The diet recommends that this blood group eat a higher protein diet. D’Adamo bases this on the belief that O blood type was the first blood type, originating 30,000 years ago.
Blood Type A Diet

Blood group A is called the cultivator by D’Adamo, who believes it to be a more recently evolved blood type, dating back from the dawn of agriculture, 20,000 years ago. The diet recommends that individuals of blood group A eat a diet emphasizing vegetables and free of red meat, a more vegetarian food intake.
Blood Type B Diet

Blood group B is, according to D’Adamo, the nomad, associated with a strong immune system and a flexible digestive system. The blood type diet claims that people of blood type B are the only ones who can thrive on dairy products and estimates blood type B arrived 10,000 years ago.
Blood Type AB Diet

Blood group AB, according to D’Adamo, the enigma, the most recently evolved type, arriving less than 1,000 years ago. In terms of dietary needs, his blood type diet treats this group as an intermediate between blood types A and B.

Needlework Overview and Needle Work Types


Needlework is a broad term for the handicrafts of decorative sewing and textile arts. Anything that uses a needle for construction can be called needlework. The definition may expand to include related textile crafts such as a crochet hook or tatting shuttles.

Similar abilities often transfer well between different varieties of needlework, such as fine motor skill and a knowledge of textile fibers. Some of the same tools may be used in several different varieties of needlework. For instance, a needle threader is useful in nearly all needle crafts.

Types of Needlework

  • Quilting
  • Applique
  • Embroidery
  • Crochet
  • Knitting
  • Tatting
  • Lucet
  • Braiding
  • Tassel making
  • Tapestry

Types of Needlework – Quilting

Quilting is a sewing method done either by hand, by sewing machine, or by a long arm quilting system. The Quilting process uses a needle and thread to join two or more layers of material together to make a quilt. Typical quilting is done with three layers: the top fabric or quilt top, batting or insulating material and backing material. The quilter’s hand or sewing machine passes the needle and thread through all layers and then brings the needle back up. The Quilting process is repeated across the entire piece where quilting is wanted. A straight or running stitch is commonly used and these stitches can be purely functional or decorative and elaborate. Quilting is done on bed spreads, art quilt wall hangings, clothing, and a variety of textile products. Quilting can make a project thick, or with dense quilting, can raise one area so that another stands out.

Types of Needlework – Applique

An applique is a smaller ornament or device applied to another surface. In the context of ceramics, for example, an applique is a separate piece of clay added to the primary work, generally for the purpose of decoration. The word applique is a french word that, in this context, means that has been applied.

In the context of sewing, applique refers a needlework technique in which pieces of fabric, embroidery, or other materials are sewn onto another piece of fabric to create designs, patterns or pictures. Applique is particularly suitable for work which is to be seen from a distance, such as in banner-making. A famous example of applique is the Hastings Embroidery.

Types of Needlework – Applique is used extensively in quilting. Dresden Plate and Sunbonnet Sue are two examples of traditional American quilt blocks that are constructed with both patchwork and applique. Baltimore album quilts, Broderie perse, Hawaiian quilts, Amish quilts and the ralli quilts of India and Pakistan also use applique.

Types of Needlework – Tatting

Tatting is a technique for handcrafting a particularly durable lace constructed by a series of knots and loops. Tatting can be used to make lace edging as well as doilies, collars, and other decorative pieces. The lace is formed by a pattern of rings and chains formed from a series of cow hitch, or half-hitch knots, called double stitches (ds), over a core thread. Gaps can be left between the stitches to form picots, which are used for practical construction as well as decorative effect.

Types of Needlework – Tatting dates to the early 19th century. The term for tatting in most European languages is derived from French frivolito, which refers to the purely decorative nature of the textiles produced by this technique. The technique was developed to imitate point lace.

Types of Needlework – Embroidery

Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins.

Types of Needlework – A characteristic of embroidery is that the basic techniques or stitches of the earliest work-chain stitch, buttonhole or blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch, cross stitch-remain the fundamental techniques of hand embroidery today.

Types of Needlework – Machine embroidery, arising in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, mimics hand embroidery, especially in the use of chain stitches, but the “satin stitch” and hemming stitches of machine work rely on the use of multiple threads and resemble hand work in their appearance, not their construction.

Types of Needlework – Crochet

Crochet is a process of creating fabric from yarn or thread using a crochet hook. The word is derived from the Middle French word croc or croche, meaning hook. Crocheting, similar to knitting, consists of pulling loops of yarn through other loops. Crochet differs from knitting in that only one loop is active at one time (the sole exception being Tunisian crochet), and that a crochet hook is used instead of knitting needles.

Types of Needlework – Knitting

Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth. Knitting consists of loops called stitches pulled through each other. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them.

Types of Needlework – Knitting may be done by hand or by machine. By hand, there are numerous styles and methods. Flat knitting, which can be done on two straight needles or a circular needle, produces a length of cloth, while circular knitting, which is done on circular or double-pointed needles, produces a seamless tube.

Types of Needlework – Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different end products by giving the final piece a different color, texture, weight, or integrity. Using needles of varying sharpness and thickness as well as different varieties of yarn adds to the effect.

Types of Needlework – Lucet

Lucet is a method of cordmaking or braiding which is believed to date back to the Viking and Medieval periods, when it was used to hang useful items from the belt. Lucet cord is square, strong, and slightly springy. It closely resembles knitted I-cord or the cord produced on a knitting spool. Lucet cord is formed by a series of loops, and will therefore unravel if cut. A lucet fork is normally made of wood, with two prongs at one end and a handle on the other. It may also have a hole through which the cord can be pulled.

Types of Needlework – Braiding

Braiding or braid (also called plait) is a complex structure or pattern formed by intertwining three or more strands of flexible material such as textile fibers, wire, or human hair. Compared to the process of weaving a wide sheet of cloth from two separate, perpendicular groups of strands (warp and weft), a braid is usually long and narrow, with each component strand functionally equivalent in zigzagging forward through the overlapping mass of the others.

Types of Needlework – The simplest possible braid is a flat, solid three-strand structure. More complex braids can be constructed from an arbitrary (but usually odd) number of strands to create a wider range of structures: wider ribbon-like bands, hollow or solid cylindrical cords, or broad mats which resemble a rudimentary perpendicular weave.

Braids are commonly used to make rope, decorative objects, and hairstyles (also see pigtails, French braid). Complex braids have been used to create hanging fiber artworks.

Types of Needlework – Braids were and still are a common form of expression in the African-American community. Some braids are very elaborate and show individuality of persons.

Types of Needlework – Tassel Making

A Tassel is a finishing feature in fabric decoration. The tassel is a universal ornament that is seen in varying versions in many cultures around the globe.

Types of Needlework – Tapestry

Tapestry is a form of textile art, woven on a vertical loom. It is composed of two sets of interlaced threads, those running parallel to the length (called the warp) and those parallel to the width (called the weft); the warp threads are set up under tension on a loom, and the weft thread is passed back and forth across part or all of the warps. Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike cloth weaving where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible. In tapestry weaving, weft yarns are typically discontinuous; the artisan interlaces each colored weft back and forth in its own small pattern area. It is a plain weft-faced weave having weft threads of different colors worked over portions of the warp to form the design.

Most weavers use a naturally based warp thread such as linen or cotton. The weft threads are usually wool or cotton, but may include silk, gold, silver, or other alternatives.

Diamond Cut, Different Types of Diamond Cuts

Diamond Cut

Diamond cut is the most important of the four Cs which gives a diamond its brilliance and brightness. If Diamond Cut factors fall below standard, the appearance of the diamond will be adversely affected. When a diamond cut to precision, it has been cut to mathematically correct proportions, allowing all the light entering from any direction to be totally reflected through the top and dispersed into a gorgeous display of color.

In order to best utilize a diamond gemstone’s material properties, a number of different diamond cut have been developed. A diamond cut constitutes a more or less symmetrical arrangement of facets, which together modify the shape and appearance of a diamond crystal. Diamond cutters must consider several factors, such as the shape and size of the crystal, when choosing a Diamond Cut. The practical history of diamond cuts can be traced back to the Middle Ages, while their theoretical basis was not developed until the turn of the 20th century. Design creation and innovation continue to the present day. New technology notably laser cutting and computer aided design has enabled the development of Diamond Cut whose complexity, optical performance, and waste reduction were hitherto unthinkable.

The most popular of diamond cut is the modern round brilliant, whose facet arrangements and proportions have been perfected by both mathematical and empirical analysis.

A diamond cut is evaluated by trained graders, with higher grades given to stones whose symmetry and proportions most closely match the particular ideal used as a benchmark.

When designing a diamond cut, two primary factors are considered. Foremost is the refractive index (RI) of a diamond, which, at 2.417 (as measured by sodium light, 589.3 nm), is fairly high compared with that of most other gems. Diamond’s RI is responsible for its brilliance—the amount of incident light reflected back to the viewer. Also important is a diamond’s dispersive power—the ability of the material to split white light into its component spectral colors—which is also relatively high, at 0.044 (as measured from the B-G interval). The flashes of spectral colors—known as fire—are a function of this dispersion, but are, like brilliance, only apparent after cutting.

The choice of diamond cut is often decided by the original shape of the rough stone, location of internal flaws or inclusions, the preservation of carat weight, and popularity of certain shapes among consumers. The cutter must consider each of these variables before proceeding.

While the round brilliant cut is considered standard for diamond, with its shape and proportions nearly constant, the choice of fancy cut is influenced heavily by fashion.

During the diamond cutting process, the diamond cutter wants to get the heaviest diamond out of a rough stone, however this can come at the cost of lowering cut grade. If a diamond is too deep, the carat weight will increase but result in a loss of brilliance due to light leakage. Diamond cutters have to compromise between finishing with the heaviest weight possible whilst still keeping good proportions. For this reason, If you inspect two diamond of equal weight, one can appear noticeably larger than the other when viewed from above, arguably the most important view. A well cut 0.90ct diamond for example could have the same width as a poorly diamond cut 1.00ct diamond.

Diamond Cut Grades

Ideal Diamond Cut

This Diamond Cut is intended to maximize brilliance, and the typically smaller table sizes of these diamonds have the added benefit of creating a great deal of dispersion or fire as well. Ideal quality diamonds are truly for the person who enjoys knowing that he has one of the finest things that money can buy. This category applies only to round diamonds.

Premium Diamond Cut

In the case of round diamonds, many Premium Cut diamonds have cuts that are the equal of any Ideal Cut diamond, though they often can be purchased at slightly lower prices than AGS Ideal Cuts. They are intended to provide maximum brilliance and fire. Like the Ideal Cut, these are also for the person who enjoys knowing that he has one of the finest things that money can buy.

Very Good Diamond Cut

These diamonds reflect most of the light that enters them, creating a good deal of brilliance. With these diamonds, the cutters have chosen to stray slightly from the preferred diamond proportions in order to create a larger diamond. The result is that these diamonds fall slightly outside of some customers’ preferences in terms of, for example, table size or girdle width, though, in many cases many of the parameters of diamonds in this range will overlap with certain parameters of diamonds in the Ideal or Premium ranges. Generally, the price of these diamonds in slightly below that of Premium cuts.

Good Diamond Cut

Diamonds that reflect much of the light that enters them. Their proportions fall outside of the preferred range because the cutter has chosen to create the largest possible diamond from the original rough crystal, rather than cutting extra weight off to create a smaller Premium quality diamond. Diamonds in this range offer an excellent cost-savings to customers who want to stay in a budget without sacrificing quality or beauty.

Fair & Poor Diamond Cut

A diamond graded as fair or poor reflects only a small proportion of the light that enters it. Typically these diamonds have been cut to maximize the carat weight over most other considerations.

Carnelian Stone Meaning, Properties and Value

Carnelian Stone

Carnelian Stone is associated with the solar plexus chakra i.e. the yellow chakra, in which imbalances are thought to cause digestive problems, as well as lack of confidence. It is useful for preventing fevers. It has the ability to increase the strength and glibness of speech. Carnelian Stone is useful for blood problems. An amulet with a rich man holding some beautiful object, carved of carnelian, is said to be powerful in staunching the flow of blood.

It balances creativity and mental processes. It is the carrier of the orange ray. It is useful for wheezing from allergies. Natural carnelian is available is bright orange color. If natural gemstone is not available, man-made Carnelian Stone can also be used. Every time after wearing, it should be properly washed under water.

It has been said to be a healing gem with a wondrous capacity for mental and physical healing properties. Carnelian Properties include assisting in getting the mind out of mental ruts and back on track for success. It bolsters up ambition and drive and reminds the wearer of the future`s goals, hence becoming a powerful tool in major decision-making. Carnelian Stone allows the person to take control of the life and make decisions. It brings energy and fire, enhancing physical energy and personal power and invoking joy, laughter and warmth as it opens the heart. It provides a sense of history and a connection to past experiences.

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