Obesity Treatment, Bariatric Surgery, Gastric Bypass, Lap Band Surgery, Lap Banding

Obesity Treatment, Bariatric Surgery, Gastric Bypass Surgery, Lap Band Surgery, Lap Banding

Bariatric Surgery

While Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery for Obesity Treatment can be performed through several small incisions in the stomach area, open bariatric surgery requires one larger incision that begins directly below the patient’s breastbone and ends just above the navel. While both the open and laparoscopic procedures produce similar long term results, open bariatric surgery is associated with a longer recovery period.

Gastric Bypass Surgery

Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity treatment is a complicated surgery that can last up to four hours. The most common type of gastric bypass surgery is Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass, which is performed with one long incision. Using staples or a plastic band, a surgeon makes a small pouch at the top of the stomach. This smaller stomach is connected to the section of the small intestine called the jejunum. With this rearrangement, food bypasses the rest of the stomach. The patient feels full more quickly, so fewer calories are consumed and absorbed by the body.

Lap Band Surgery

The Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band procedure, more commonly known as Lap Band surgery, is growing in popularity for obesity treatment. This restrictive lap band surgery procedure involves using a Silastic band to create a smaller stomach pouch, causing patients to become full after eating a minimal amount of food.

Lap Banding

Lap banding limits the capacity of the stomach. Lap Banding means that after eating a small amount of food, you feel full. Keyhole surgery is used to tie an inflatable band (sometimes called a lap band) around the top part of the stomach, creating a small pouch at the top. This limits the amount of food your stomach can hold. Food then slowly passes from the pouch into the lower part of your stomach and on into your digestive system.

The operation of lap banding is quite simple to reverse but does require further surgery.

Restrictive Weight Loss Surgery

This type of bariatric treatment surgery for obesity treatment involves closing off parts of the stomach to make it smaller, thus decreasing the amount of food that can be eaten. The LAP-BAND and Vertical Banded Gastroplasty procedures are restrictive types of bariatric surgery.

Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG)

The Vertical Banded Gastroplasty weight loss surgery procedure for obesity treatment creates a smaller stomach pouch by stapling off a section of the stomach, then using a band to restrict the passage of food out of the pouch. After stomach stapling, the patient is unable to consume large amounts of food in one sitting. Once the food leaves the pouch, it goes through the normal digestive tract.

Malabsorptive Weight Loss Surgery

This obesity treatment weight loss surgery approach entails altering the digestive system to decrease the body’s ability to absorb calories. The Biliopancreatic Diversion and Extended (Distal) Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass procedures are malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery.

Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD)

Biliopancreatic Diversion involves first creating a reduced stomach pouch and then diverting the digestive juices in the small intestine. The first part of the small intestine, where most of the calories are normally absorbed, is bypassed. That section, which contains the bile and pancreatic juices, is reattached to the small intestine much further down. There is a variation of this procedure called Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch. This operation utilizes a larger stomach “sleeve” and leaves the beginning of the duodenum attached, but is otherwise very similar to standard BPD.

Extended (Distal) Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGBP-E)

This obesity treatment weight loss surgery procedure is a variation of the Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass operation. It differs in that a somewhat larger stomach pouch is created, but a significantly longer section of the small intestine is bypassed. There is less emphasis on restricting food intake quantity and more on inhibiting the body’s ability to absorb calories.

Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

The most commonly performed weight loss surgery for obesity treatment in the United States is Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. This operation involves severely restricting the size of the stomach and altering the small intestine so that caloric absorption is inhibited. To learn more, visit our gastric bypass surgery page.

Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery

As opposed to open bariatric surgery, laparoscopic bariatric surgery involves for obesity treatment making several small incisions and performing the operation by video camera. A laparoscope, the device used to capture the video, is inserted through an abdominal incision. This provides the bariatric surgeon a magnified view inside the abdomen, allowing the operation to be performed using special surgical instruments and a television monitor.

The long-term results for laparoscopic bariatric surgery and gastric bypass surgery should be similar to those for open procedures. The advantages of the laparoscopic approach include less post-operative pain, a shorter recovery period, and less extensive scarring.

Gastric Sleeve Surgery

Gastric sleeve surgery for obesity treatment is a newer type of weight-loss surgery. The laparoscopic procedure is typically used to kick-start weight loss for the extremely obese—people who are too overweight to withstand more invasive surgeries. During a gastric sleeve operation, a surgeon removes more than half of the patient’s stomach. What’s left takes a sleeve- or tube-like shape, and it is sealed with staples. When the patient has lost enough weight, he or she may then undergo gastric bypass or another type of weight-loss surgery.


Gastroplasty, also known as stomach stapling, was once a popular type of obesity treatment weight-loss surgery. The original gastroplasty debuted in the 1970s. It involved stapling the stomach into a smaller section, so only a small opening was left for food. Surgeons eventually began performing Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG). In this type of surgery, both staples and a band are used to reshape the patient’s stomach into a small pouch. Like regular gastroplasty, only a small hole is left for food to travel into the rest of the stomach. Today, gastroplasty is not performed as often, as studies indicate many patients regain weight.

Wheat Germ Benefits, Nutrition and Recipes

Wheat Germ

Wheat germ is a part of the wheat kernel. The germ is only a very small part of the kernel, approximately 2 ½ percent in total. The word germ does not have anything to do with bacteria, it simply refers to germination. The germ is the reproductive part that germinates and forms the wheat grass. The Wheat germ is the vitamin and mineral rich embryo of the wheat kernel that is removed during the refining of whole wheat grains to white flour.

Wheat germ along with whole wheat is a rich source of nutrients that makes it important for a healthy diet. In fact, wheat germ contains 23 nutrients, and has more nutrients per ounce than any other vegetable or grain.

Wheat germ may be ingested in several forms

· Flakes – Two tablespoons sprinkled on cereal, yogurt, juice, salads, etc.
· Oil – Wheat germ oil is rich in vitamin E, linoleic acids and phospholipids. Add 10 cubic cm to salads daily. You can also use it directly on the skin to prevent wrinkles.
· Capsules – If you do not like the taste of the oil but want its benefits, buy capsules of wheat germ oil and take it this way. For the recommended dose read the container. Be careful not to take more than the indicated dose. Vitamin E is considered potentially toxic if more than the recommended dose is taken. Always should be taken under supervision.

Culinary Uses

· Wheat germ is a top-notch food that can be easily incorporated into casseroles, muffins, and pancakes or sprinkled over cereal or yogurt.
· If you make your own bread or cakes you can easily add wheat germ when baking by using it instead of a small amount of flour.
· You will find that it has a sweet, almost nutty flavor that is not too overpowering.
· It can also be added to vegetables and even yogurt.


Manufacturers remove wheat germ during general wheat kernel processing. They do this because it contains oils that will go rancid in wheat products over time. The technique also removes the precious nutrients and vitamins, however, making the products from the resulting white flour less healthy and more likely to cause blood sugar spikes. This is why some nutritionists recommend whole wheat flour products over items made with white flour.

Dr Gerson Therapy Diet, Essential Foods, Foods to be Avoided

Gerson Diet | The Gerson Therapy Diet
What is Gerson Diet | Dr Gerson

Dr Gerson was a pioneer who realised gerson diet, immunity and illness are closely linked. He let the world know that a carefully regulated diet can restore an impaired immune system to its best functioning and this is a crucial factor in healing.Although his specific dietary recommendations have not been scientifically validated (we recommend that readers should consult their physician and/or a qualified nutritionist before trying out any new approach), we can at least understand and apply Gerson’s general principles, which are now well accepted.

Dr Gerson first used a dietary regime in the mid-1920’s to cure himself of an otherwise untreatable migraine. He then developed his regime to successfully treat tuberculosis and in 1928, he treated his first cancer patient (who had cancer of the bile duct) reluctantly and with little optimism. She had a complete remission.

He explains further, that with the help of his patients themselves, he really understood Hippocrates’ ancient idea of detoxifying the body thoroughly by “giving patients a special soup” i.e. restoring digestion with fresh, pure and suitably prepared food, thereby correcting any vitamin and mineral imbalances. Gerson also emphasized the importance of patients maintaining a positive attitude towards life in general and towards diet in particular.

Using this approach, he claimed a 50% success rate with terminally ill patients.

Dr Gerson was considered an eccentric in his time although he modified his theories through constant practice and observation. Yet, his principles have been sufficiently authenticated over the last 50+ years.
He believed that cancer is
* A multi-factorial, de-generative, lifestyle disease.
* An inevitable outcome of our food and environment becoming too polluted and too far removed from nature. Over a period of time, these factors combine to weaken the body’s normal functioning and resistance to a point where one final trigger-factor can produce illness.

* Involves an impaired immune system and that a careful dietary regime can restore immunity to optimum functioning.
Gerson Therapy
* The use of only organic food to avoid pesticide and herbicide toxins.

* No animal fat or protein in the first eight weeks. Both milk and soya are banned to avoid the body receiving fats and protein, both of which have been found to “feed” cancer cells.

* No pulses (lentils, beans and again soya) to be consumed as they can prevent mineral uptake because of their phytic acid content.

* All water used for cooking or rinsing must be provided from distilled or reverse osmosis sources.

* Water must not be drunk as it dilutes the power of the juices. A little peppermint tea is allowed.

* Neither plastic nor tin foil may be used as it may contaminate food.

* The diet is limited to freshly made juices of vegetables, fruits and leaves, consumed within 20 minutes of preparation to avoid losses in enzyme effectiveness. Large quantities of raw fruit and vegetables are also consumed, along with some lightly steamed vegetables, stewed fruit, potatoes and oatmeal.

* The aim is to exclude sodium, whilst maintaining potassium intake. Fresh juices provide more easily absorbed and digested nutrients, whilst not taxing the bodily systems. The use of hourly juices over the length of the day also avoids calorie and thus insulin surges, and actually limits the total number of calories consumed per day.

* Organic, in season fresh vegetables and fruit are the ideal.
Essential Foods to Gerson Diet Therapy

* Apples – raw
* Carrots – raw and lightly cooked

* Potatoes – baked, mashed or in potato salad

* Sweet potatoes – but only once per week

* Fresh fruit – apart from apples, eat grapes, cherries, mangoes, peaches, oranges, apricots, grapefruit, banana, tangerines, pears, plums, melons, papayas (pears and plums may be stewed)

* Dried fruit – apricots, dates, figs, peaches, raisins, prunes
Gerson Diet Foods to be Avoided
* All things bottled, canned, frozen, preserved, refined, salted, smoked and sulphured

* Bicarbonate of soda in food, toothpaste and mouthwashes

* Alcohol

* Salt

* Avocado – too much fatty acids

* Basic, oregano (aromatic oils can cause difficult reactions)

* Berries (except red, black and whole currants)

* Biscuits, cake, chocolate, cocoa

* Coffee (any sort), tea

* Cucumbers

* Fats and oils (except flaxseed)

* Mushrooms

* Nuts (too much fatty acids/fats)

* Peas (sulpured), lentils, beans, seeds (phytic acid/enzyme inhibitors)

* Pickles

*Soya beans on the plant

* Pineapples

*Refined flour

* Soft drinks, fizzy and fruit juices (preserved)

* Soya (fat content and phytic acid)

* Spices

* Sugar (including sweets)

* Tap water
Gerson Diet Foods Forbidden for first eight weeks

All dairy, eggs, meat and fish.

The type of juicer is also crucial. Centrifugal juicers simply do not get the full volumes of minerals, vitamins and enzymes out. Gerson recommended a heavy press juicer that involves two stages and a double press.

IGI, GRA, GIA Diamond Certification, Diamond Grading

Diamond Certification

Before purchasing a diamond, you should expect to review a copy of Diamond Certification as proof that it has undergone an unbiased, professional examination. A diamond certificate, also called a diamond grading report, diamond dossier, or diamond quality document, is a report created by a team of gemologists. The diamond is evaluated, measured, and scrutinized using trained eyes, a jeweler’s loupe, a microscope, and other industry tools. A completed certificate includes an analysis of the diamond’s dimensions, clarity, color, polish, symmetry, and other characteristics. Many round diamonds will also include a cut grade on the report.

Diamond Certification Systems

GIA – Gemological Institute of America

The GIA created the 4 Cs grading Diamond Certification system. GIA is known for having the strictest grading standards of the leading labs and is also the most consistent. The GIA certificate is considered the benchmark to which all others are compared.

IGI – International Gemological Institute

The IGI tends to grade diamonds looser in color and somewhat looser in clarity compared to GIA. The IGI is consistent in its Diamond Certification grading standards.

AGS – American Gem Society

The AGS was the original lab to provide diamond cut grades and uses its own cut grading scale from 0 to 9. The AGS’s Diamond Certification grading standards are nearly comparable to GIA’s grading standards. AGS has an excellent reputation for consistency.

GSI – Gemological Science International

The GSI’s Diamond Certification grading standards and consistency are similar to those of the IGI and the GIA

EGL – European Gemological Laboratory (USA)

The EGL typically has looser diamond Diamond Certification grading standards compared to GIA standards, although not as loose as EGLI.

EGLI – European Gemological Laboratory International

The EGLI generally has looser Diamond Certification diamond grading standards compared to GIA standards. EGLI consistently grades diamonds 2 to 2.5 total grades higher than GIA. For example, a difference in color of one grade higher + a difference in clarity of one grade higher = a two-grade higher difference.

Tussah Silk Overview, Information and Silk Moths

Tussah Silk

Tussah silk is produced by tussah silkworms and is usually a beautiful natural golden color but can vary from pale cream to a dark rich brown. Tussah silk moth caterpillars eat oak leaves or other leaves rich in tannin and it is the tannin that gives the color to this silk. This luxury fiber has a beautiful natural shine and it is very durable.

Tussah silk fabric is often textured and can be used to make clothes (jackets, waistcoats and skirts) and soft furnishings such as cushions.

Tussah silk is not as fine as mulberry silk (the fibres vary from 26 to 36 micron in diameter whilst mulberry silk is 10 to 14 microns), but it is stronger and more durable. Tussah silk is usually a honey color, while mulberry silk is white.

There are several species of tussah silk moths (family Saturniidae) in China, India, Japan, Africa and North America. The moths are large and have a prominent eye marking on their wings. The caterpillars are bright green, as wide as a man’s finger and they feed on a wide range of plants.

Despite claims that tussah silk is a wild silk, most tussah silk that is for sale comes from commercially bred caterpillars. They are not as domesticated as mulberry silkworms and can survive in the wild if they escape. Some cocoons are still collected from the wild, usually after the moths have hatched, but this is becoming rarer as it is not commercially viable.

Tussah silk is also good for silk paper making or silk fusion as well as for layering into felt and needle felting.

Graham Cracker Diet, Food, Calories in Graham Crackers, Nutrition Facts

Graham Diet | Graham Cracker Diet

Around 1829, Graham invented the Graham diet, which consisted mainly of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole wheat and high fiber foods, and excluded meat and spices altogether (see vegetarianism). Very fresh milk, cheese, and eggs were permitted in moderation, and butter was to be used very sparingly.
Graham believed that adhering to the diet would prevent people from having impure thoughts and in turn would stop masturbation (thought by Graham to be a catalyst for blindness) among other things. He was a prolific writer and speaker for his cause, which was sternly opposed to “bad habits” of the body and mind. During the 1830s, the diet had a moderate response from the mostly puritanical faction of the American public, so much so that at one point it was strictly imposed on students of Oberlin College by David Campbell (a disciple of Graham’s). During the period in which it was enforced, some rebellious students ate off-campus, and at one point a professor was fired for refusing to stop bringing his own pepper for use with his meals. The diet was eventually renounced by the college in 1841 following a public outcry.

The Graham cracker, invented by its namesake as a staple for the diet, eventually became part of American cuisine.
Graham Food | Calories in Graham Crackers | Graham Crackers Nutrition Facts

Highest fiber foods: the following list is included in the Graham Diet. It helps you to lose weight and prevent certain diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, cancer and more.

Beans have soluble amounts of fiber and soluble fibers. Soluble fiber helps lower cholesterol levels. Beans are also rich in protein, carbohydrates, folate and iron. But you should know that most beans cause flatulence. One strategy that is recommended in the Graham Diet is to soak beans in water for several hours before mixing them with other ingredients to remove the offending sugars.

Broccoli is rich in vitamins C, K, and A, and dietary fibers. It also contains potent anti-cancer properties. A single serving provides more than 30mg of Vitamin C and a half-cup provides 52mg of Vitamin C. The 3,3′-Diindolylmethane found in broccoli is a potent innate immune system activator which serves as anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti- cancer. Broccoli also contains the compound glucoraphanin, which can be processed into an anti-cancer compound sulforaphane. But those properties are reduced if broccoli is boiled. A high intake of broccoli is recomended in the Graham Diet because it has been found to reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and prevents heart disease.

Brussels sprouts is also recommended in Graham diet. It contain a chemical which have anti-cancer properties which helps DNA repair in cells to block the growth of cancer cells.

Cabbage is allowed in the Graham diet. It is an excellent source of vitamin C and can be included in dieting programs like the Graham diet because it is a low-calorie food. Like broccoli, it also contains chemicals which repairs the DNA within the cells and prevents cancer. But people should know that cabbage has an effect on the thyroid gland. Cabbage acts as goitrogen which inhibits the production of thyroid hormones (thyroxin and triiodothyronine) which is responsible in controlling the secretion of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). Too much TSH would cause thyroid gland enlargement, known as goiter.

Carrot is allowed in the Graham diet. It has rich in vitamin A. A lack of it causes poor vision, including night vision. Carrot is also rich in dietary fiber, anti-oxidants and minerals.

Eggplant is effective in the treatment of high cholesterol. It helps block the formation of free radicals and also a source of folic acid and potassium.

Turnip’s roots are high only in vitamin C while its leaves are a good source of vitamin A, C, K, folate and calcium.

Collard greens are high in vitamin C, soluble fibers and multiple nutrients which help prevent formation of cancer cells. It also has potent immune system properties, which acts as anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer.

Avocados are high in valuable fats and have beneficial effects on the blood serum. A 7-day rich in avocado diet showed a 17% decrease in cholesterol levels in patients. Avocado has more potassium than bananas and is rich in vitamin B, E and K. Avocado have a high-fiber content among fruits: 75% insoluble and 25% soluble fiber.

Whole wheat is allowed in the Graham diet. It has two principal parts namely gluten and starch. A 100 grams serving of wheat contain about 12.6 grams of protein, 1.5 grams of total fat, 71 grams of carbohydrate, 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.2mg of iron; the same weight of hard red spring wheat contains about 15.4 grams of protein, 1.9 grams of total fat, 68 grams of carbohydrate, 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.6mg of iron. Wheat is contraindicated to people with celiac disease (gluten sensitive patients) because gluten is mainly found in wheat.

Omega-3 Fats Overview and Information

Omega-3 Fats

Omega-3 Fats refer to a group of three fats called ALA (found in plant oils), EPA, and DHA (both commonly found in marine oils). Common sources of Omega-3 Fats include fish oils, egg oil, squid oils, krill oil, while some plant oils contain the omega 3 ALA fatty acid such as seabuckthorn seed and berry oils, algal oil, flaxseed oil, Sacha Inchi oil, Echium oil, and hemp oil.

Omega-3 Fats are vital for normal metabolism but some of the potential health benefits of supplementation are controversial. These are considered essential fatty acids, meaning that they cannot be synthesized by the human body. Omega-3 Fats are polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain.

Omega-3 Fats have mild antihypertensive effects. When subjects consumed omega-3 fatty acids from oily fish on a regular basis, their systolic blood pressure was lowered by about 3.5–5.5 mmHg.

Evidently, Omega-3 Fats reduce blood triglyceride levels, and regular intake may reduce the risk of secondary and primary heart attack. These offer a promising complementary approach to standard treatments for ADHD and developmental coordination disorder. Fish oils appear to reduce ADHD-related symptoms in some children.

A recent trend has been to fortify food with Omega-3 Fats supplements. Global food companies have launched omega-3 fatty acid fortified bread, mayonnaise, pizza, yogurt, orange juice, children’s pasta, milk, eggs, popcorn, confections, and infant formula.

Indian Fashion Wear Dresses

Indian Fashion Wear Dresses

India is a great land of culture and heritage with wonderfully weaved together so many people of different castes and religion. Different people have different tastes, fashion likes and dislikes. Indian fashion is greatly influenced by their background and culture of it’s people. India is well known for its garments and classic fashion styles all around the world. Indian women wear traditional Indian dresses, the men in India can be found in more conventional western clothing like shirts and trousers.

The various fabrics and textures, Indian hand made cloth all fascinate the tourists. The ‘Indian sari’ for women is a renowned way of dressing it portrays elegance and beauty. The Indian sari is a cloth, which ranges from 7 to 9 yards, which is wrapped around the petticoat, pleated and neatly tucked and draped around the blouse. Indian Fashion Designers combine Western trends with Indian touch, creating garments which are truly outstanding. The India fashion week is a much awaited fashion event which helps showcase latest trends & works of Indian dress designers.

Indian dresses always have a demand in the international fashion market because of its unique and outstanding styles and types of garments
Salwar Kameez

Salwar kameez (also spelled shalwar kameez and shalwar qamiz) is a traditional dress worn by both women and men in South Asia. Salvars or salwars or shalvars are loose pajama-like trousers. The legs are wide at the top, and narrow at the bottom. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic. The side seams (known as the chaak) are left open below the waist-line, which gives the wearer greater freedom of movement. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, the garment is worn by both sexes. In northern India, it is most commonly a woman’s garment.

Salwars are pleated at the waist and held up by a drawstring or an elastic belt. The pants can be wide and baggy, or they can be quite narrow and made of fabric cut on the bias. In the latter case, they are known as churidars. The kameez is usually cut straight and flat; older kameez use traditional cuts, as shown in the illustration; modern kameez are more likely to have European-inspired set-in sleeves. The tailor’s taste and skill are usually displayed not in the overall cut, but in the shape of the neckline and the decoration of the kameez.

When women wear the salwar kameez, they usually wear a long scarf or shawl called a dupatta around the head or neck. For Muslim women, the dupatta is a less stringent alternative to the chador or burqa . For Sikh and Hindu women (especially those from northern India, where the salwar kameez is most popular), the dupatta is useful when the head must be covered, as in a temple or the presence of elders. For other women, the dupatta is simply a stylish accessory that can be worn over one shoulder or draped around the chest and over both shoulders.
Modern versions of the feminine salwar kameez can be much less modest than traditional versions. The kameez may be cut with a plunging neckline, sewn in diaphanous fabrics, or styled in sleeveless or cap-sleeve designs. The kameez side seams may be split high up to the waistline and, it may be worn with the salwar slung low on the hips. When women wear semi-transparent kameez (mostly as a party dress), they wear a choli or a cropped camisole underneath it.

The Shalwar kameez is sometimes known as “Punjabi suit,” in Britain and Canada. In Britain, especially during the last two decades, the garment has been transformed from an everyday garment worn by immigrant South Asian women from the Punjab region to one with mainstream, and even high-fashion, appeal.
kurta or kurti (Kameez)

The shirt, kameez or qamiz, takes its name from the Arabic qamis. A kurta (or kurti, for a shorter version of the kurta) is a traditional item of clothing worn in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India,Sri Lanka and Pakistan. It is a loose shirt falling either just above or somewhere below the knees of the wearer, and is worn by both men and women. It can be worn with a dhoti, loose salwar pants, churidar pants, as well as jeans, a tight-fitting variant of the salwar. Kurtas are worn both as casual everyday wear and as formal dress.

Western women often wear inexpensive imported kurtas as blouses, usually over jeans. These kurtas are typically much shorter than the traditional garments and made with a lighter materials, like those used in sewing kameez. Imported kurtas were fashionable in the 1960s and 1970s, as an element of hippie fashion, fell from favor briefly, and are now again fashionable. South Asian women may also wear this Western adaptation of South Asian fashion.
Formal kurtas are usually custom-made by South Asian tailors, who work with the fabric their customers bring them. South Asians overseas, and Westerners, can buy them at South Asian clothing stores or order them from web retailers.

A traditional kurta is composed of rectangular fabric pieces with perhaps a few gusset inserts, and is cut so as to leave no wasted fabric. The cut is usually simple, although decorative treatments can be elaborate.
The sleeves of a traditional kurta fall straight to the wrist; they do not narrow, as do many Western-cut sleeves. Sleeves are not cuffed, just hemmed and decorated.

The front and back pieces of a simple kurta are also rectangular. The side seams are left open for 6-12 inches above the hem, which gives the wearer some ease of movement.
The kurta usually opens in the front; some styles, however, button at the shoulder seam. The front opening is often a hemmed slit in the fabric, tied or buttoned at the top; some kurtas, however, have plackets rather than slits. The opening may be centered on the chest, or positioned off center.

A traditional kurta does not have a collar. Modern variants may feature stand-up collars of the type known to tailors and seamstresses as “mandarin” collers. These are the same sort of collars seen on achkans, sherwanis, and Nehru jackets

Churidars, or more properly churidar pyjamas, are tightly fitting trousers worn by both men and women in South Asia and Central Asia. They are a variant of the common salwar pants. Salwars are cut wide at the top and narrow at the ankle. Churidars narrow more quickly, so that contours of the leg are revealed. They are usually cut on the bias (at a 45 degree angle to the grain of the fabric) which makes them naturally stretchy. Stretch is important when pants are closefitting. They are also cut longer than the leg and finish with a tightly fitting buttoned cuff at the ankle. The excess length falls into folds and appears like a set of bangles resting on the ankle (hence ‘churidar’; ‘churi’: bangle, ‘dar’: like). When the wearer is sitting, the extra material is the “ease” that makes it possible to bend the legs and sit comfortably. The word “churidar” is from Hindi and made its way into English only in the 20th century. Earlier, tight fitting churidar-like pants worn in in India were referred to by the British as Moghul breeches, long-drawers, or mosquito drawers.

The churidar is usually worn with a kameez (a form-fitted overshirt) by women or a kurta (a loose overshirt) by men, or they can form part of a bodice and skirt ensemble, as seen in the illustration of 19th century Indian women wearing churidar with a bodice and a transparent overskirt. Traditionally attired Kathak dancers, from northern India, still wear churidar with a wide skirt and a tight bodice; when the dancers twirl, the leg contours can be discerned — as can be seen in many Bollywood movies featuring Kathak dancing.

Dupatta / Chunari / Punjabi “Chunni” is a long scarf that is essential to many South Asian women’s suits. Some “dupatta suits” include the salwar kameez, the trouser suit, and the kurta. The dupatta is also worn over the Hindu outfit of lehenga or ghaghra- choli. The dupatta has long been a symbol of modesty in South Asian dress. It is traditionally worn across both shoulders. However, the dupatta can also be worn like a cape around the entire torso. The material for the dupatta varies according to the suit: cotton, georgette, silk, chiffon, and more. The other names for dupatta are chunri, chunni and orna [mainly in Bangladesh](sometimes shortened to ‘unni’ by many Gujaratis).

There are various modes of wearing the unsewn dupatta. When not draped over the head in the traditional style, it is usually worn with the middle portion of the dupatta resting on the chest like a garland with both ends thrown over each respective shoulder. When the dupatta resting is worn along with the salwar-kameez it is casually allowed to flow down the front and back.
The use of the dupatta has definitely undergone a metamorphosis over time. In current fashions, the dupatta is frequently draped over one shoulder, and even over just the arms. Another recent trend is the short dupatta often seen with kurtas and Indo-Western clothing. Essentially, the dupatta is often treated as an accessory in current urban fashion. Nevertheless, the dupatta remains an integral part of Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani clothing.

Stylish party wear salwar kameez, stunning celebrity wear anarkali salwar kameez with contrast color embroidered dupatta are available in the market.

Sleeveless tunic length pure georgette kameez is embellished with resham, kadana and stones co-ordinated with crepe churidar and georgette dupatta, Pure georgette kameez with gota and pitta work co-ordinated with net churidar and georgette dupatta and much more latest fashion wear salwar suits are available.
Lehenga Choli

Lehenga : A long skirt which reaches upto the ankles. Usually has embroidery or some other work on it. Also spelled as Lehnga / Lehanga / Lengha. Lehengas is a Indian traditional (yet a designer lenghas worn even by modern Indian women) garment worn originally by Indian women from the state of Rajasthan. The designer lehenga is actually a long skirt made in such a way that it is flat but loose and comfortable all the way up to the knee. Below the knee it is pleated and flowing. It is tied at the waist with draw strings. A ‘choli’ or short blouse which comes up to the top of the skirt is worn on top.

Chaniya or chania cholis, Ghagara or ghagra cholis, sharara cholis are sister dresses of lehenga cholis for weddings. These dresses are perfect costumes for bridesmaid dresses.

Kiwi Fruit Nutrition, Health Benefits, Uses, Selection, Storage, Facts, Information

Kiwi Fruit Nutrition, Health Benefits of Kiwi Fruit, Kiwi Fruit Facts, Kiwi Fruit Information

Kiwi fruit or Chinese gooseberry is one of the delicious fruits with full of promising health promoting phyto-chemicals, vitamins and minerals. This widely recognized, wonderfully unique fruit is native to eastern Chinese “Shaanxi” province. This exotic fruit is also recognized as China’s national fruit.

The kiwifruit plant is a semitropical, deciduous, large woody vine belonging to the family of Actinidiaceae; Genus, Actinidia.  Sceintific name: Actinidia chinensis.

The journey of this humble gooseberry from china mainland to oceania and thence to worldwide was interesting!  During early years of twentieth century kiwifruit seeds were carried to New Zealand by missionaries where it has become naturalised. From Newzealand it spread all across the world and now widely grown across Europe and furthermore in california in North America.

During each season which lasts from September till November, The kiwi vine bears numerous ovals shaped, fuzzy, brown colored fruits.

Each fruit measures about the size of large hen’s egg and weighs up to 125 g. Internally; the flesh is soft, juicy, emerald green in color with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds. Fruit texture is similar to strawberry or sapodilla and the flavor resembles a blend of strawberry, apple and pineapple fruits.

Several cultivars grown apart from the common kiwifruit. “Hardy kiwi fruit” (A.arguta) also known as baby kiwi, are much smaller in size than “Fuzzy kiwi fruit” (A. deliciosa). Their size is similar to that of a large grape with smooth, edible skin. Inside, “hardy kiwi fruit” resemble “fuzzy kiwi-fruit” in color, texture, but usually has intense flavor and sweetness. “Gold Kiwifruit”, developed by hybrid technique by agricultural research department in New Zealand, has a smooth, less hairy, bronze skin, a pointed cap at one end and distinctive golden yellow flesh with less tart and more tropical flavor than green kiwifruit. Commercially, it has a higher market value than common green kiwifruit.

Health Benefits of Kiwi Fruit

  • Kiwifruit is a very rich source of soluble dietary fiber (3.8 g per 100 g of fruit OR 10% of RDA), which makes it a good bulk laxative. The fiber content helps to protect the colon mucous membrane by decreasing exposure time to toxins as well as binding to cancer causing chemicals in the colon.
  • The fruit is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin-C; provides about 154% of the DRI (daily recommended intake). Consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful free radicals.
  • Kiwi fruit contains very good levels of vitamin-A, vitamin-E, vitamin-K and flavonoid anti-oxidants such as beta carotene, lutein and xanthin. Vitamin K has potential role in the increase of bone mass by promoting osteotrophic activity in the bone. It also has established role in Alzheimer’s disease patients by limiting neuronal damage in the brain.
  • Research studies have shown that certain substances in kiwi-fruit functions as blood thinner similar to aspirin; helps to prevent clot formation inside the blood vessels and protects from stroke and heart attacks.
  • Kiwi seeds are an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids. Research studies shows that consumption of foods rich in ω-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and also help prevent development of ADHD, autism, and other developmental differences in children.
  • Fresh kiwi fruit is a very rich source of heart healthy electrolyte “potassium”. Potassium in an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure by countering effects of sodium.
  • It also contains good amounts of minerals like manganese, iron and magnesium. Manganese is used in the body as a co-factor for the powerful antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. Magnesium is an important bone strengthening mineral like calcium.

Kiwi Fruit Selection and Storage

Kiwifruit season starts by September and lasts till November. Though they are available throughout most of the year, they are at their best between august till December. Mature fruits harvested from the vine carefully; the unripe stuff appears hard, starchy, and closely resembles sapodilla (sapote) fruit.

Place raw kiwi-fruits in a plastic bag for 4-6 days to ripen. Keeping them in a paper bag with an apple, banana or pear will help to hasten ripening process.

In the sore, select kiwi-fruit with intact skin, without any blemishes or cuts. Ripe kiwis yield to pressure when pressed with the thumb gently. Once ripen, they have short shelf life if kept open at room temperature. So, keep them in the refrigerator.

Kiwi Fruit Preparation and Serving Methods

Fresh, delicious, succulent kiwifruit can be eaten all alone. Wash under cold running water and gently peel the skin. Once cut, the slices should be eaten soon as they become soggy if left open in the air.

Here are some Serving Tips

  • Kiwifruits are so delicious, that they can be eaten as they are without any additions. Enjoy their unique flavor.
  • Serve sliced kiwi fruit and strawberries with yogurt, whose flavors are naturally complementary with each other.
  • Mixture of sliced kiwi-fruit and pineapple together to make sauce, add it to marinate chicken breast and boil. The active compound, actinidin in kiwi fruit helps tenderizing meat products.
  • The fruit is also used in the preparation of New Zealand’s popular dessert, Pavloa.
  • It is also used in the preparation of muffins, cheesecake, pie, juice and jellies.

Spinning Mill Project Report, Spinning Machine

Spinning Machine, Spinning Mill Project

Following information is Required to Work out a Costing for a New Spinning Mill Project, Spinning Machine

  • The Average Count of the Plant
  • Capacity of the plant – No of Spindles to be installed and the number of back process and winding machines required
  • Investment on Machinery
  • Investment on Land
  • Investment on Building
  • Working Capital Required
  • Product lay out, the count pattern
  • Selling price of individual counts
  • Raw material cost(including freight, duty etc)
  • Packing cost per kg of yarn
  • Freight per kg of yarn
  • Direct labour cost
  • Indirect labour cost
  • Fixed power cost
  • Variable power cost
  • Spares consumption
  • Administration costs
  • Selling overheads

Working Out With The Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Cost

Step 1: Contribution to be Calculated for Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Cost

In general for a spinning mill, contribution per kg of a particular count is calculated to work out the economics for a new project as well as for a running mill.

Contribution = selling price – direct cost

Direct cost for a spinning mill includes raw material price, packing cost, freight. All other costs are either fixed costs or semi variable costs. The other costs cannot be conveniently allocated to per kg of a particular count.

The basic idea of a new project or a running plant is to maximize this contribution. Because once the plant is designed, spares cost, power cost, administration cost, labour cost etc almost remain constant. There will not be significant changes in these costs for different count patterns if the plant is utilization is same.

Step 2: To Work out the Total Investment Cost ( Machinery, Accessories, Land and Building, Humidification and Electrical instruments)

To calculate the number of back process and winding drums required, a detailed spin plan should be worked out with speeds and efficiencies to be achieved in each machine.

While calculating the no of machines required, m/c utilization, m/c efficiency , waste percentage, twist multipliers, delivery speeds etc should be considered properly. These factors should be decided based on yarn quality required, end breakage rates and the capacity of machine.

Investment On Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine

Machinery  No. of Machines  Rate/MC  Total Cost in US$

Trutzschler Blowrrom line for cotton  1 Line  4,16,640  4,16,640

Trutschler Blowrrom line for Polyester 1 Line  3,21,365 3,21,365

Trutshcler DK-903 cards  22  92,500  2,035,000

Rieter RSB-D30 draw frames
(with autoleveller),  6
Rieter double delivery drawframe  10
Rieter unilap  2
Rieter E62 combers  10  16,48,000

How a speed frames with overhead blower  7  144530  10,11,710

Ring frames with autodoffer 23  148960 34,26,080

Winding machines ( 26 drums per mc)  93,200 2143600

Roving transport ( manual)  1,50,000  1,50,000

Argus fire system   1  50,000  50,000

Total  1,12,02,395

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine – From the above table it is clear that, 23 ringframes with 1120 spindles are working with auto doffing and with link to autoconer. The major advantage of this automation is to reduce labour and to reduce the problems related to material handling. One has to really work out the benefits achieved because of this and the pay back for the extra investment.

Drawframe contributes a lot to the yarn quality and the ringframe and winding machine working. It is always better to go in for the best drawframes like RSB-D30 drawframes with autoleveller. It is not wise to buy a cheaper drawframe and save money.

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine – It is always better to keep excess carding and autoleveller drawframes, so that flexibility of the project is also maintained. If the coarser counts contributes more and the market is good, overall production can be increased. If the market is for finer count, both the machines (carding and drawframes)can be run at slower speeds, which will surely contribute to yarn quality.

Speeds of speedframe , combers and ringframes do not affect the yarn quality as it is affected by card and draw frame speeds.

Blow room capacity should be utilized to the maximum, as it consumes a lot of power ,space and money.

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine – Ring frame specification should be perfect, because the working performance and power consumption of the ring frame depends on the specifications like, lift, ring dia, no of spindles etc. Ring frame specification should be decided to get the maximum production per spindle and to reduce the power consumed per kg of yarn produced by that spindle. Because the investment cost and the power consumption for the ring frame is the highest in a spinning mill.

Investment On Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Accessories

Accessories  No.of Machines  Rate/MC  Total Cost

Carding cans 36″ x 48″  120 160  19,200

comber cans 24″ x 48″  350  85  29,750

Draw frame cans 20″ x 48″  110  53  58,500

Identification bands 20″  400  1.2  480

Identification bands 24″  50  1.8  90

Roving and spinning bobbins  36,000

Plastic crates  400  6  2400

Trolleys  10,000

Cone trolly  400  6   2400

Fork lift 1  27,000  27,000

Hand truck  3  1000  3000

Total 2,02,220

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Service and Maintenance Equipments

Service and Maintenance Equipments  No.of Machines  Rate/MC  Total

Cots buffing machine and accessories  1 20,000   20,000

Card room accessories  1 set  60,000  60,000

Spindle oil lubricator  1  4,000  4,000

Clearer roller cleaning machine  1  3,000  3,000

Vacuum cleaner  1  15,000  15,000

Pneumatic cleaners  6   500  3000

Weighing balance  3  2000  6000

Strapping machine 2  2000  4000

Premier auto sorter 1  2500  2500

Premier uster tester  1 45,000 45,000

Premier strength tester  1  45,000 45,000

Premier fiber testing  1 45,000  45,000

Premier Classidata  1  25,000  25,000

Erection charges   1,50,000

Total   4,27,500

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine – Card service machines like Flat tops clipping machine and flats grinding machine are very important for yarn quality. One should not look for cheaper machine. It is always better to go for reputed manufacturers like GRAF, HOLLINGSWORTH etc.

Rubber cots contributes a lot to yarn quality. Bad buffing in ring frame can increase the imperfections by 15%. Poor quality of buffing in draw frame and speed frames can affect both production and quality. It is better to go for the best cots mounting machine and cots buffing machine.

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Humidification and Electrical Equipments

Electrical installation including transformer, incoming and outgoing panels, bus duct,

Capacitor, etc for 3800 KVA — ———————————————— 3,50,000

Cables ————————————————————————————–1,25,000

Compressor, Dryer and pipe lines ————————————————- 1,80,000

Humidification system ———————————————————- 7,67,000

Chillers ——————————————————————————————–1,76,000

Ducting and installation for humidification system ————————— 1,25,000

Workshops, hydrant and other equipments ——————1,00,000

Total—————- 18,23,000

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine – In indonesia, most of the units use PLN power and some of the spinning mills use Gensets. A detailed costing has to be done to compare the cost per unit to decide, Whether to use the PLN power or to go in for Gensets. while working out the costing finance cost on investment , overhauling cost, running cost, efficiency of the machine should be considered for cost calculation in the case of Genset. In case of PLN power, the losses due to power interruption( based on the area data), finance cost on initial investment, md charges, unit charges to be considered. It is better to use 50% PLN and 50 % own generation.

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Land and Building Investments

Land Cost ———————————————————————————– 2,00,000

Land Development ————————————————————————  40,000

Factory Building —————————————————————————— 14,05,440

Road and others —————————————————————————– 40,000


Step No.3 : To calculate the expenses ( labour, power, stores,working capital, insurance etc)

Working capital = 3,000,000

Labor:The following table gives the details about labor requirement

Department  No.of People Required

Production 140

Packing  15

Maintenance  30

Utility  17

Administration and personal dept  20

Total no of People required per day 222


Wages at 50 USD/Month including Bonus and Insurance 11,000

Other Facilities   3885

Salaries for managerial staff   10000

Other Facilities 3500

Total——————————- 28,485

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Power : The Following Table gives the Details about the Power

Total units(KWH) produced (consumed)per day ——————69559

Unit cost (cost / KWH) ———————————————- 0.03

Total production in Kgs ——————————————–17,390

KWH/ Kg of yarn  ————————————————– 4.0

Total Power Cost/Day ———————————————2087

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Spares : The Following Table shows the Spares Cost, Repair and Insurance

Spares cost at usd 8/1000 spindle shift ———————- 222,566

Repairs and other overheads ———————————– 200,000

Insurance at 0.175% on investment and working capital —– 31320

Total Cost  ————————————————— 453886

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Step No.4 : Pay Back Calculation

Details In USD


Land and building   1,444,440

Machinery, accessories & service equipments 11,832,115

Electrical and Humidification ducts 1,823,000

Total Investment   15,099,555

Working Capital   3,000,000

Grand Total  18,099,555

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Recurring Expenditures Per Day

Salaries and Wages  949.5

Power Cost 2087

Stores , Repairs and Insurance  1260.8

Total  4297.3

Interest Calculation (per day)

On Capital 8%  3355.5

on Working Capital 9%  750

Total Expenses Including Interest   8402.8

Total Contribution Per Day  13312

Net Profit( before depreciation & taxation)  4909.2

Spinning Mill Project and Spinning Machine Pay Back Period

8.54 years

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