Concepts of Textile Designing

Concepts of Textile Designing

A textile designer can be employed in the garment, fashion, home furnishing and the interiors segment among other industries.The textile industry in India is evolving from the handloom, power loom and craft sectors to newer areas, like the paper and automobile industries.Automotive textiles need to be designed keeping the end use in mind – durability, comfort and visually appealing. Technological innovations play an extremely important role to suit the use. For example, these days water repellant fabrics are being developed for car interiors.

The skill sets required to succeed in the textile field, be it the core industry or a high end design studio, are quite similar. They work in a team, apart from obviously being equipped to handle prints, weaves, embroideries, well versed in design language, and has a thorough understanding of fabric. An equally important requirement for aspiring textile designers today is the need to be sensitive towards the environment and society.Keeping abreast with trends is also a part of the job requirement, as the textile industry caters to global markets. Today, a host of degrees as well as diplomas are offered at the graduate and postgraduate level to equip you with these skills. However, an inclination towards design with a willingness to always be surrounded by loads of fabric is mandatory to make your mark in this industry.

The research argues that the communication of concepts in textile design relies too heavily on the unspoken transmission of tacit knowledge and subsequently that conceptualisations of textiles as a unique design discipline remain under-developed. It draws on, and questions, the work of leading design research academics that have constructed theories based on specific versions or experiences of the design process.

Interlining Fabric, Woven and Non Woven Interlinings


Interlining is a layer of fabric inserted between the face and the lining of a garment, drapery, or quilt. It is similar to batting, a thick layer of fiber designed to provide insulation, loft, and body to quilts, pillow toppers, and heavy winter jackets. Depending on the application, the materials in this layer can be woven, knitted, or created by fusing fibers together. Silk, wool, and artificial fibers with good insulating qualities are common choices for interlining.

It can also be used to protect fabrics, especially those used in drapes and consequently often exposed to direct light. Delicate fabrics like silk and velvet can suffer from sun damage if hung with a liner alone, and most drapers recommend the use of it for the life of the fabric. In addition to protecting the fabric, it also gives drapes a better form and fuller body. In quilting, the layer can offer an extra bit of fluffiness, along with warmth in the winter.


Non woven interlining fabric is produced by interlocking layers of fibers or filament mechanically, thermally or chemically.

Woven interlining fabrics are created by the interlacing of warp and weft fibers in a regular pattern.

Fabric Treatment and Info on Fabric Treatments

Fabric Treatment

Fabric Treatment – Chemical Finishing

Chemical Finishing adds qualities to fabrics which they lack.It eliminates certain flaws or improves their touch and aspect.

Functional Finishing

Functional finishing improves the product’s performance under conditions of specific use.

Fabric Treatment – Aesthetic Finishing

Aesthetic Finishing includes treatments to improve the appearance or touch (sensation) of the fabric.

Secondly, there is a distinction between chemical treatments (wet) and mechanical treatments (dry).

A third way to classify treatments is done by their degree of permanency. These classifications are :

Fabric Treatment – Temporary finish for fabrics

The finish is removed by washing or dry-cleaning; e.g. calendaring (similar to pressing).

Renewable finishes for fabrics

Finishes that may be applied again. Examples of this type of treatment are starch and dirt repellent finishes.

Fabric Treatment – Durable finishes for fabrics

A treatment that will last the entire life of the product but with decreasing efficiency.

Permanent finishes for fabrics

Finish remaining entirely the same during the entire life of the product.

Fabric Treatment – Chemical Finishing Treatment for fabrics

Chemical treatment adds particular qualities and characteristics to fabrics. The most commonly used treatments are

Crease-resistant treatment, allowing to avoid the tendency to crease of cotton fabrics.

Shrink-resistant finish limits the tendency to shrink of cotton.

By applying the water repellent and oil repellent finish, one avoids that fabrics absorb water and oil.

Other finishes add specific properties to fabrics to starch and reinforce them.

The softening finish improves the touch of the fabric.

Fabric Treatment – Fabric Calendering

Consists of submitting the fabric to a high pressure between two cylinders at high temperature, which will give a bright and ironed aspect. There is a variant to calendering called honeycomb by which embossed patterns are engraved on the surface of the fabric.

Fabric Treatment – Fabric Raising | Fabric Suede

It consist of cutting certain fibres on the surface of the fabric to give them a soft and velvety aspect. Raising is obtained by grating the fabric with metallic points, and sueding by the friction of sandpaper.

Fabric Treatment – Sanforizing | Sanforizing Process

It allows to prevent the cotton from shrinking when washed. It is carried out by compressing the cotton to reduce its shrinking capacity .

Bra Size Overview, How to Measure Bra Size

Bra Size

Bra Size can vary widely depending on the manufacturer, material used, and other considerations, and women can have difficulty finding a correct bra size. This can be a challenge for both smaller and larger busted women.

There is considerable variation in women’s breast volume, shape, size and spacing. A woman’s breast volume may be more at the bottom, sides or top, and this will affect the bra size actually needed. Bra size are merely a way of standardizing these factors for a close fit, which are not necessarily the correct fit. As a minimum, a correctly fitting bra takes account of a woman’s chest size (on the bra called the band size) and her breast size (called the cup size). The bra size (band size) can typically be adjusted, using the three or four alternative sets of fastening hooks that are usually provided. The shoulder straps can also almost always be adjusted. There are several labeling systems in use which provide approximate bra size. However, these bra sizing systems differ widely between countries. Some countries follow standards based on inch measures while others use centimeters. The labeling of Bra Size is sometimes confusing.

Based on their research, many physicians believe that bra size is meaningless, when breast volumes are calculated accurately. The current popular system of determining bra size is inaccurate so often as to be useless. Add to this the many different styles of bras and the lack of standardization between brands, and one can see why finding a comfortable, well-fitting bra is more a matter of educated guesswork, trial, and error than of precise measurements.

It is often difficult to find the correct bra size off-the-shelf, which rely on step-sizing. Normally a perfect fit can only be achieved by a custom made bra. These would take into account, for example, the position of a woman’s breasts on the chest, any additional padding desired, besides other variables. A number of stores have certified professional Bra Size fitters specialists. However, even Bra Size fitters have been shown to be quite variable in their recommendations.

A 2004 study found that 80% of department store Bra Size fittings resulted in a poor fit.

Buying off-the-shelf or online bras is unwise if the buyer has never tried on the brand and type of bra that she is interested in buying. Some bra manufacturers and distributors state that trying on and learning to recognize a proper fit is the best way to determine a correct bra size, much the same as with shoes. Some critics observe that measuring systems such as the one described above often lead to an incorrect size, most commonly too small in the Bra Cup Size, and too large in the bra band size. For anyone, especially cup sizes larger than a D, one should get a professional Bra Size fittings from the lingerie department of a clothing store or a specialty lingerie store.

Some women intentionally buy larger cups and pad them, while yet others buy smaller cups to give the appearance of being full. Finally, the elastic properties of the band make bra band size highly unreliable, and in one study the label size was consistently different from the measured size.

Fashion and image drive the bra market, and these factors often take precedence over comfort and function.As already noted, there is no agreed standard across all manufacturers for measuring and specifying bra size. Obtaining the correct size is further complicated by the fact that the size and shape of a woman’s breasts fluctuate during her menstrual cycle, and also with weight gain or loss. Even breathing can substantially alter the measurements.

The results of a number of surveys and studies in many different countries show that between 70 and 100% of women wear incorrect Bra Size fittings.Larger-breasted women tend to wear bras that are too small, and smaller-breasted women, ones that are too large. Larger women are more likely to have an incorrect Bra Size fittings. This may be partly due to a lack of understanding of how to correctly determine bra size; it may also be due to unusual or unexpectedly rapid growth in size brought on by pregnancy, weight gain, or medical conditions including virginal breast hypertrophy. As breasts become larger, their shape and the distribution of the tissues within them changes, becoming ptotic and bulbous rather than conical. This makes measurements increasingly unreliable, especially for large breasts. Similarly the heavier a build the woman has, the more inaccurate the underbust measurement as the tape sinks into the flesh more easily.

Finally, most women are asymmetrical (10% severely), with the left breast being larger in 62%, especially when the breasts are large. Many of the health problems associated with bras are due to Bra Size fittings problems and are discussed further below, under health problems. However, finding a comfortable Bra Size fittings is described as very difficult by many women, and this has affected sales. Medical studies have also attested to the difficulty of getting a correct fit. Scientific studies show that the current system of bra size is quite inadequate.

Fish Leather, Fish Skin Leather, How to Make Fish Leather

Fish Leather

Fish Leather is popular for its motifs and its pigmentation. Mainly used for making shoes and bags, the fish skin is tanned like other animal skins. The species used include salmon, perch, sturgeon, etc.

. Salmon – farmed in Iceland and Norway, salmon skin has fine scales. Its strength and elegant look make it the most popular fish leather.
. Perch – coming from Nile, its skin is recognizable with its large, round and soft scales.
. Wolffish – its skin is smooth because without scales. We recognize it thanks to its dark spots, and the ‘stripes’ which are due to the friction of marine rocks.
. Cod – its skin has finer scales than salmon, but its texture is more varied, sometimes smooth and sometimes rough.
. Sturgeon – fish well known for its eggs (caviar), which make it rare. Its leather is thus quite expensive.
. Eel – fish without scales, its skin has a shiny appearance.
. Tilapia – its leather is less resistant than salmon and perch but is still exotic. It comes mainly from Africa (Nile).
. Shark – its skin is covered with small, close-set tubercles, making it very tough. The handbags made of shark skin used to be in vogue but this keen interest has since fallen as the costs of production and of the leather itself are very high. Moreover, this skin is more difficult to work.

How to Bleach Clothes, Bleaching Clothes

How to Bleach Clothes

How to Bleach Clothes – Bleaching is a Process of making fabrics more whiter and lighter.

Typically, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chlorite, sodium hypochlorite are used for bleaching. Hydrogen peroxide bleaching is becoming a mainstream, taking environmental problems into consideration. In general, reduction bleaching is not suitable for cotton.

How to Bleach Clothes – Peroxide Bleaching | H2O2 Bleaching

The H2O2 Textile bleaching is the most common bleaching method, and is environmentally friendly (degradable into water and oxygen). The best bleaching whiteness can be obtained at pH 11 adjusted using caustic soda.

How to Bleach Clothes – However, if metal ions, such as iron ions and copper ions are present in fabrics or in water, catalytic action of these metal ions causes abnormal degradation of H2O2, which may sometimes cause embrittlement of fabrics until holes (pin-holes) are generated due to the excessive degradation.

How to Bleach Clothes – Usually, the abnormal degradation of H2O2 and the resulting generation of pin-holes are prevented by adding a chelating agent. Also, as a stabilizer for H2O2, sodium silicate has been conventionally employed. The obtained bleaching whiteness is favorable. However, the use of sodium silicate has the following disadvantages. Silica scales are generated due to calcium ions and magnesium ions reacted with silica ions. The generated silica scales are adhered to machinery, damaging fabrics, or undermining hand of the fabrics.This case, however, suffers from a contradiction that complete removal of calcium ions and magnesium ions will undermine the stability of H2O2.

To solve the disadvantages and contradiction, a non-silicate type stabilizer containing no sodium silicate has been developed, although the cost is higher than sodium silicate.

How to Bleach Clothes – Furthermore, when dyeing is performed without a drying process after the H2O2 fabric bleaching, the problem of residual H2O2 arises. 10ppm of residual H2O2 or more causes dyeing problems, although it depends on a type of dye. To degrade the residual H2O2, a reducing agent or the like, or an enzyme (catalase) can be used. The enzyme appears as a current mainstream.

How to Bleach Clothes – Hydrogen Peroxide Stabilizer

BRITE NIK -Contains sodium silicate; Effective in dispersing silica scales.

How to Bleach Clothes – BRITE W -Contains no sodium silicate bleaching, fabric bleaching, textile bleaching, peroxide bleaching, bleaching definition

APPEAGEN TOP -Improved version of BRITE W

Chelating Agent

CHELET G-8 – DTPA system
CHELET G-5 -Fermented Organic Amino-carboxylate
FN-5000 -Chelate Dispersing Agent

Residual Hydrogen Peroxide Dispersing Agent

BK-7 -Reduction System
ENZYLON KAT-50 -Catalase

How to Bleach Clothes – Sodium Chlorite Bleaching

The NaClO2 bleaching is performed after pH adjustment to 3.5 with an acid such as a formic acid. It provides soft hand with less embrittlement of cotton. Compared with the H2O2 bleaching, some insist that even bluish whiteness can be achieved with the NaClO2 bleaching.

How to Bleach Clothes – Also, the NaClO2 bleaching is free from worries about pin-hole generation, as often occurs in the H2O2 bleaching. However, a harmful chlorine dioxide gas is generated during the bleaching process, and therefore, suitable measures including the equipments need to be taken for metallic corrosion problems and dechlorination purposes. After fabric bleaching, a dechlorination process needs to be provided. A trace chlorine which exists in fabrics reacts with nitrogen compound to form chloroamine, or cause yellowing of the fabrics when exposed to light and heat.

How to Bleach Clothes – Note here that a special reducing agent, sodium thiosulfate (hypo), or hydrogen peroxide (so-called, cosmetic bleaching) is used for the dechlorination purposes.

Sodium chlorite low-temperature activator -BRITE FB CONC

One-Bath Desizing and Bleaching

Desizing agent -BIOGEN 300
Bleaching auxiliary -BIOGEN NN
Dechlorination agent -BRITE CL-B

How to Bleach Clothes – Sodium Hypochlorite Bleaching

The NaClO bleaching is characterized in that the textile bleaching is performed at room temperatures without requiring a heating apparatus such as a steamer, and that the chemical cost is low. However, the disadvantages of the NaClO bleaching include relatively low bleaching whiteness and embrittlement of fabrics.

How to Bleach Clothes – No particular pH adjustment is required in the NaClO bleaching. The NaClO bleaching is usually employed for bleaching fabrics after Kier-scouring, or for bleaching towels. For towels, the two-step bleaching comprising the NaClO fabric bleaching and the H2O2 bleaching is preformed to obtain full whiteness. The NaClO bleaching is also employed for jeans fade adjustment, etc. Note here that a dechlorination process needs to be provided as in the NaClO2 bleaching. Since ‘chlorine free’ is a recent trend, like PRTR, a method without using chlorine is being examined. The same applies to NaClO.

White Opal Meaning, Value and White Opals Info

White Opal

White Opal usually balances left and right brain hemispheres for neuro- disorders and it also stimulates white corpuscles.

It is a mystifying gem, as each one appears different and has delicate beauty. It has always been one of the most popular gems of all times.

White Opal passes massive amounts of energy. Various opal imitations and also synthetic opals are available in the market nowadays. So, it is very necessary that one should have a professional consultation before purchasing.

By comparison, white opals are the least valuable form of opal. This is partially due to the fact that they are the most common form of opal, but also due to the lack of darkness in the stone which leads to the more vibrant colour in boulder opals and black opals. Opals with a very white body tone also tend to have very pale colour. However, good quality white opal can be incredibly beautiful, and may fetch prices up to AUD $200 per carat.

It treats infections, fevers and strengthens memory. Purifying the blood and kidneys, it helps to illuminating densities in the body and can assist in the dispersal of fibroids and various kinds of cysts. Opal regulates insulin, eases childbirth.

Panty Slip Types, Pantie Slip Uses and Panty Slips Info

Panty Slip

A Panty Slip is a woman’s undergarment worn beneath a dress or skirt to help it hang smoothly and to prevent chafing of the skin from coarse fabrics such as wool. It is also worn for warmth, and to protect fine fabrics from perspiration.

They are often worn to prevent the show through of intimate undergarments such as panties or a brassiere. It may also be used to prevent a silhouette of the legs showing through clothing when standing in front of a bright light source. Other uses are to make a dress or skirt hang properly, the prevention of chafing to the skin, to protect the outer garment from damage due to perspiration, or for warmth, especially if the dress or skirt is lightweight and thin. In very warm and/or humid climates they are made from 100% cotton may be desired.

Full Slip

A full Panty Slip hangs from the shoulders, usually by means of narrow straps, and extends from the breast to the fashionable skirt length.

Half Slip

A half Panty Slip hangs from the waist. They are usually made of a smooth and slippery fabric such as silk, satin, polyester, tricot or nylon, although cotton types are also used particularly in hot countries. half slip are often decorated with lace at the edges and hem, and are typically worn over more intimate undergarments. They are also worn for modesty under translucent outer garments. It may be worn with a matching camisole.

Hair Styling Products and Hair Product Benefits

Hair Styling Products

Hair Styling products for volume can be generally categorized into three categories by their key holding polymers. All three have different unique benefits in the styling process

  • Water based polymers – e.g. gels, mousses, foams
  • Wax based polymers – e.g. waxes and pomades
  • Alcohol based polymers -e.g. hairspray

Hair Styling Products – Water Based Polymers

Water-based styling polymers are delivered to the hair as a film that dries relatively slowly. As the film dries it becomes sticky and forms bonds between hair strands, making the desired style easier to achieve and maintain. As with gels, this stickiness leads to a positive end result – a smooth style that lasts. After the hair is dry, the polymer forms a hard film that bonds the hair into place. Combing or disrupting the hair can break the bond, but even the broken pieces provide some friction, which provides some hold benefits by helping to prevent hair strands from sliding across each other.

Hair Styling Products – Hair Gels

Gels are water-based Hair Styling products that use water based polymers with a variety of thickeners to achieve the desired product consistency and texture. Because of their thickness they are particularly good for creating seam welds that increase apparent hair stiffness and give a texturized look and great root lift.

Hair Styling Products – Hair Mousses | Hair Foams

Mousses and foams use a propellant (pressurized gas) and a surfactant in addition to water-soluble styling polymers to help create a smooth, creamy foam. When you shake the can, liquid propellant is mixed with the water based liquid concentrate. Then, when the can is inverted and product is dispensed, the pressure of the vapor propellant pushes the mixture of liquid propellant and liquid concentrate out of the can. The liquid propellant then quickly evaporates, creating foam. The mousse foam makes it easy to apply the styling polymers to your hair because in the foaming state it can be spread very thinly.

Hair Styling Products – Wax based Polymers

They primarily hold hair through seam welds creating large locks of many hairs bonded together. The result is hair that stands up from the scalp in large chunks, creating a piecey, textured look. The holding power is created by the waxy materials’ internal stickiness or cohesiveness. The waxy materials do not dry because they are not water-soluble. Thus these bond don’t become rigid over time. The positive benefits of not drying means that the bonds can be easily remolded by running your hands through your hair over time.

Hair Styling Products – Hair Waxes | Hair Pomades

Waxes and pomades Hair Styling Products are the ultimate flexible styling products and can give great root lift. But be careful – they are potentially heavy and greasy if not used in the proper quantity. They are typically water and oil emulsions that combine water-soluble polymers with waxy ingredients. They are best used on very short hairstyles and create texture for a piece-y, chunky look. If they are not formulated well, they can be difficult to wash out of hair since they are water repellent. Use of a clarifying or purifying shampoo is recommended with waxes.

Hair Styling Products – Alcohol based Polymers

Alcohol-based styling polymers are delivered to the hair in a solution of polymer and alcohol that dries very quickly. The rate of drying is much faster than that for water-based styling products because alcohol evaporates much faster than water. As the alcohol evaporates the film dries, forming bonds between hair strands, welding the hairs together in the desired style. A fast drying rate makes alcohol-based stylers perfect for locking in finished styles because they do not rewet the hair.

Alcohol-based polymers are typically much more humidity resistant than water-based polymers. That is because alcohol-based polymers require surfactant, like shampoo, to make them soluble in water. Thus the water available via high humidity does not soften or loosen hairspray bonds.

Frogspawn Coral Growth, Frog Spawn Coral Feeding

Frogspawn Coral

Frogspawn Coral is a large polyp stony coral often referred to as the Wall, Octopus, Grape, or Honey Coral. Its polyps remain visible throughout both the day and night, resembling a mass of fish eggs or frog eggs, hence one of its common names Frogspawn. Its coloration is green or brown to tan in color. With its appearance and coloration it would make a nice addition to any reef aquarium.

During the evenings, Frogspawn Coral sweeper tentacles can extend up to six inches beyond its base into the reef aquarium surroundings. Frogspawn Coral will sting other neighboring corals in the reef aquarium, therefore, it is best to leave plenty of room between itself and other types of corals. Frogspawn Coral is moderately difficult to maintain, but it is a popular coral that will thrive under the proper conditions. It will need to have moderate to heavy lighting combined with moderate water movement within the aquarium. For continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water.

The symbiotic algae zooxanthellae hosted within its body provides the majority of its nutritional requirements from photosynthesis. It will also benefit from additional food in the form of micro-plankton or brine shrimp.

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