Hackers Diet, John Walker Diet, Dieting as an Engineering Problem

Hackers Diet | John Walker Diet

The Hacker’s Diet (humorously subtitled How to lose weight and hair through stress and poor nutrition) is a diet plan created by the founder of Autodesk, John Walker, outlined in an electronic book of the same name, that attempts to aid the process of weight loss by more accurately modeling how calories consumed and calories expended actually impact weight. John Walker notes that much of our fat free mass introduces signal noise when trying to determine how much weight we’re actually losing or gaining. With the help of a graphing tool (Excel is used in the book), he addresses these problems. Factoring in exercise, and through counting calories, we can calculate our total energy expenditure (basal metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, and day-to-day exercise) and cut back our calorie intake, or increase our exercise to lose weight.

Dieting as an engineering problem

Walker describes the diet as approaching weight loss as an engineering problem,claiming that his approach enabled him to reduce his weight from 215 pounds to 145 pounds in a year, and keep it stable afterwards.

Walker cuts the problem down to the barest elements, modeling the human body as a “rubber bag”, where one can ignore many small variables such as food type, frequency, metabolic rates and even exercise as not greatly important to the central problem. Calories consumed compared to calories used is the key, according to Walker; if one eats more calories than one burns, one gains weight; if one eats fewer calories than one burns, one loses weight. All that is necessary to consistently lose weight, at the desired rate, is to monitor the intake, monitor the weight loss rate and make the desired proportional adjustments to reach the desired goal, a very simple control system problem.

The body as a system

Walker also goes to some lengths to introduce the reader to simple feedback and control systems, providing spreadsheets to demonstrate feedback, oscillation and data smoothing to illustrate his arguments. Data smoothing is a key element of the monitoring system, preventing the dieter from becoming discouraged by short term failure to lose and to be able to concentrate on the long term trend.

While the diet is a fairly straightforward calorie-counting approach, what makes it successful for many is the unique focus on feedback through monitoring of weight using engineering principles. Techniques are presented for Excel aided or paper and pencil data smoothing to allow the dieter to adjust the diet for themselves using the long term trend and to not be discouraged by short term fluctuations based on water retention or other factors.

Another important factor in the diet’s approach is using the trend line as a control system to allow the dieter early warning of relapse after the target weight is reached. As Walker states The vast majority of people who lose weight end up, in relatively short order, gaining back every pound they lost. A quick check of the trend line provides an easy way to make small adjustments in intake, allowing much greater control of weight for life.

Textile Processing – Mercerizing, Calendering

Textile Processing

Textile processing is one of the important industries related with textile manufacturing operations. This industry has a long history that begins with Indigo dyeing a natural color, derived from a plant.

Textile Processing includes Desizing, Scouring, Bleaching, Mercerizing, Singeing, Raising, Calendering, Shrinking, Dyeing, Printing.

Textile processing is a general term that covers right from singeing(protruding fiber removal) to finishing and printing of fabric.

Textile processing – Desizing

Depending on the size that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid and then rinsed, or enzymes may be used to break down the size.

Textile processing – Scouring

Scouring, is a chemical washing process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural wax and non-fibrous impurities (e.g. the remains of seed fragments) from the fibres and any added soiling or dirt. Scouring is usually carried in iron vessels called kiers. The fabric is boiled in an alkali, which forms a soap with free fatty acids (saponification). A kier is usually enclosed, so the solution of sodium hydroxide can be boiled under pressure, excluding oxygen which would degrade the cellulose in the fibre. If the appropriate reagents are used, scouring will also remove size from the fabric although desizing often precedes scouring and is considered to be a separate process known as fabric preparation. Preparation and scouring are prerequisites to most of the other finishing processes. At this stage even the most naturally white cotton fibres are yellowish, and bleaching, the next process, is required.

Textile processing – Bleaching

Bleaching improves whiteness by removing natural coloration and remaining trace impurities from the cotton; the degree of bleaching necessary is determined by the required whiteness and absorbency. Cotton being a vegetable fibre will be bleached using an oxidizing agent, such as dilute sodium hypochlorite or dilute hydrogen peroxide. If the fabric is to be dyed a deep shade, then lower levels of bleaching are acceptable, for example. However, for white bed sheetings and medical applications, the highest levels of whiteness and absorbency are essential.

Textile processing – Mercerizing

A further possibility is mercerizing during which the fabric is treated with caustic soda solution to cause swelling of the fibres. This results in improved lustre, strength and dye affinity. Cotton is mercerized under tension, and all alkali must be washed out before the tension is released or shrinkage will take place. Mercerizing can take place directly on grey cloth, or after bleaching.

Many other chemical treatments may be applied to cotton fabrics to produce low flammability, crease resist and other special effects but four important non-chemical finishing treatments are:

Textile processing – Singeing

Singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibres from the fabric to produce smoothness. The fabric passes over brushes to raise the fibres, then passes over a plate heated by gas flames.

Textile processing – Raising

Another finishing process is raising. During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth to lift the surface fibres, thereby imparting hairiness, softness and warmth, as in flannelette.

Textile processing – Calendering

Calendering is the third important mechanical process, in which the fabric is passed between heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossed effects depending on roller surface properties and relative speeds.

Textile processing – Shrinking (Sanforizing)

Finally, mechanical shrinking (sometimes referred to as sanforizing), whereby the fabric is forced to shrink width and/or lengthwise, creates a fabric in which any residual tendency to shrink after subsequent laundering is minimal.

Fructose Malabsorption Overview

Fructose Malabsorption

Fructose Malabsorption is a digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose is impaired by deficient fructose carriers in the small intestine’s enterocytes. This results in an increased concentration of fructose in the entire intestine.

Occurrence in patients identified to be suffering symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome is not higher than occurrence in the normal population. However, due to the similarity in symptoms, patients with fructose malabsorption often fit the profile of those with irritable bowel syndrome. A small proportion of patients with both fructose malabsorption and lactose intolerance also suffer from celiac disease.

Fructose malabsorption is not to be confused with hereditary fructose intolerance, a potentially fatal condition in which the liver enzymes that break up fructose are deficient.

Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine without help of digestive enzymes. Even in healthy persons, however, only about 25–50g of fructose per sitting can be properly absorbed. People with fructose malabsorption absorb less than 25g per sitting. In the large intestine, fructose that has not been adequately absorbed reduces the absorption of water osmotically and is metabolized by colonic bacteria into short chain fatty acids, producing the byproduct gases hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. This abnormal increase in hydrogen is detectable with the hydrogen breath test.

The physiological consequences of fructose malabsorption include increased osmotic load, rapid bacterial fermentation, altered gastrointestinal motility, the formation of mucosal biofilm and altered profile of bacteria. These effects are additive with other short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates such as sorbitol. The clinical significance of these events depends upon the response of the bowel to such changes; they have a higher chance of inducing symptoms in people with functional gut disorders than asymptomatic subjects. Some effects of fructose malabsorption are decreased tryptophan, folic acid and zinc in the blood.

Fructose Malabsorption Symptoms

. Bloating (from fermentation in the small and large intestine)
. Diarrhea and/or constipation
. Flatulence
. Reflux
. Stomach pain (as a result of muscle spasms, the intensity of which can vary from mild and chronic to acute but erratic)
. Vomiting (if great quantities are consumed)
. Early signs of mental depression
. Nausea

Fructose Malabsorption Diagnosis

The diagnostic test, when used, is similar to that used to diagnose lactose intolerance. It is called a hydrogen breath test and is the method currently used for a clinical diagnosis.

Fructose Malabsorption Treatment

There is no known cure, but an appropriate diet and the enzyme Xylose Isomerase can help.

Foods that should be avoided by people with fructose malabsorption include:

. Foods and beverages containing greater than 0.5g fructose in excess of glucose per 100g and greater than 0.2g of fructans per serving should be avoided. Foods with >3g of fructose per serving are termed a ‘high fructose load’ and possibly present a risk of inducing symptoms. However, the concept of a ‘high fructose load’ has not been evaluated in terms of its importance in the success of the diet.

. Foods with high fructose-to-glucose ratio. Glucose enhances absorption of fructose, so fructose from foods with fructose-to-glucose ratio <1, like white potatoes, are readily absorbed, whereas foods with fructose-to-glucose ratio >1, like apples and pears, are often problematic regardless of the total amount of fructose in the food.

. Foods rich in fructans and other fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), including artichokes, asparagus, leeks, onions, and wheat-containing products, including breads, cakes, biscuits, breakfast cereals, pies, pastas, pizzas, and wheat noodles.

. Foods containing sorbitol, present in some diet drinks and foods, and occurring naturally in some stone fruits, or xylitol, present in some berries, and other polyols (sugar alcohols), such as erythritol, mannitol, and other ingredients that end with -tol, commonly added as artificial sweeteners in commercial foods.

Cotton Harvesting Season and Harvesting Cotton

Cotton Harvesting

In the United States, production of the Cotton crop for a given year starts soon after cotton harvesting the preceding fall, when many cotton farmers chop or shred the stalks with machines. The residue is plowed under and the land usually left rough until spring tillage. Cotton Planting season varies from the beginning of February in southern Texas to the beginning of June in the northern sections of the Cotton Belt.

Cotton Harvesting Season

The cotton harvesting season conventionally starts on the 1st of August each year.

Cotton requires a long growing season (from 180 to 200 days), sunny and warm weather, plenty of water during the growth season, and dry weather for harvest.

Cotton Harvesting Method

A number of methods of cotton harvesting , chemical and mechanical, have been used to control weeds and grass, including intensive spraying of herbicide before and after planting. The Cultivator, rotary hoe, and flame cultivator are also used to destroy weeds. Nearly all cotton grown in the United States is now harvested mechanically with spindle-type pickers or strippers. Cotton Pickers are used extensively in irrigated lands. The Cotton picker has vertical drums equipped with wire spindles that engage and pull the cotton from open bolls. Cotton Strippers are used primarily in western Texas and western Oklahoma. Cotton Strippers are once over machines that pull the bolls from the plant. cotton harvesting, cotton harvested, cotton planting, cotton planting season, cotton harvesting season, cotton pickers

Cotton is farmed intensively and uses large amounts of fertilizer and 25% of the worlds insecticide. Native Indian variety were rainwater fed, but modern hybrids used for the mills need irrigation, which spreads pests. The 5% of cotton bearing land in India uses 55% of all pesticides.Before mechanization, cotton was harvested manually and this unpleasant task was done by the lower castes, and in the United States by slaves of African origin.

Diamond Shapes and Diamond Cuts Shapes

Diamond Shapes

Diamond Shapes – Round Brilliant Diamonds

This shape has set the standard for all other diamond shapes, and accounts for more than 75% of diamonds sold today. Its 58-facet cut, divided among its crown (top), girdle (widest part) and pavilion (base), is calibrated through a precise formula to achieve the maximum in fire and brilliance.

Oval Diamonds

An even, perfectly symmetrical design popular among women with small hands or short fingers. Its elongated shape gives a flattering illusion of length to the hand.

Marquise Diamonds

An elongated shape with pointed ends inspired by the fetching smile of the Marquise de Pompadour and commissioned by the Sun King, France’s Louis XIV, who wanted a diamond to match it. It is gorgeous when used as a solitaire or when enhanced by smaller diamonds.

Pear Shaped Diamonds

A hybrid cut, combining the best of the oval and the marquise, it is shaped most like a sparkling teardrop. It also belongs to that category of diamond whose design most complements a hand with small or average-length fingers. It is particularly beautiful for pendants or earrings.

Heart Shaped Diamonds

This ultimate symbol of romance is essentially a pear-shaped diamond with a cleft at the top. The skill of the cutter determines the beauty of the cut. Look for a stone with an even shape and a well-defined outline.

Emerald Cut Diamond

This is a rectangular shape with cut corners. It is known as a step cut because its concentric broad, flat planes resemble stair steps. Since inclusions and inferior color are more pronounced in this particular cut, take pains to select a stone of superior clarity and color.

Princess Cut Diamond

This is a square or rectangular cut with numerous sparkling facets. It is a relatively new cut and often finds its way into solitaire engagement rings. Flattering to a hand with long fingers, it is often embellished with triangular stones at its sides. Because of its design, this cut requires more weight to be directed toward the diamond’s depth in order to maximize brilliance. Depth percentages of 70% to 78% are not uncommon.

Trilliant Diamonds

This is a spectacular wedge of brittle fire. First developed in Amsterdam, the exact design can vary depending on a particular diamond’s natural characteristics and the cutter’s personal preferences. It may be a traditional triangular shape with pointed corners or a more rounded triangular shape with 25 facets on the crown, 19 facets on the pavilion, and a polished girdle. It is definitely for the adventurous.

Radiant Cut Diamonds

This square or rectangular cut combines the elegance of the emerald shape diamond with the brilliance of the round, and its 70 facets maximize the effect of its color refraction. Because of its design, this cut requires more weight to be directed toward the diamond’s depth in order to maximize brilliance. Depth percentages of 70% to 78% are not uncommon.

Cushion Cut Diamond

An antique style of cut that looks like a cross between an Old Mine Cut (a deep cut with large facets that was common in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries) and a modern oval cut.

Angola, Angolan Embassy, Embassy, Consulate, Consulates

Angola Embassies

Angolan Embassy in Alger, Algeria
Embassy of Angola in Algeria
14 Rue Curie – El Biar, Alger
Tel: (213 21) 92 53 27, (213 21) 91 18 94
Fax: (213 21) 92 53 37

Angolan Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Embassy of Angola in Argentina
La Pampa 3452-56
CP 1430 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel: (54 11) 45 54 88 77 / 83 83
Fax: (54 11) 45 54 89 98

Angolan Embassy in Vienna, Austria
Embassy of Angola in Austria
Seilerstatte 15/10
A-1010 Vienna, Austria
Tel: (43 1) 718 74 88
Fax: (43 1) 718 74 86

Angolan Embassy in Brussels, Belgium
Embassy of Angola in Belgium
Rue Franz Merjay 182
1050 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: (+32) 2 346 18 72/80, (+32) 2 346 87 49
Fax: (+32) 2 344 08 94

Angolan Consulate General in Brussels, Belgium
Consulate General of Angola in Belgium
Av. de Saturne n 42
1180 Brussels
Tel: (32 2) 379 27 00
Fax: (32 2) 379 28 09

Angolan Embassy in Cotonou, Benin
Embassy of Angola in Benin
Zone des Ambassades – Carre 223
Houleme – Cotonou
Tel: (213 21) 60 97 27, 91 18 94, 94 04 78
Fax: (229) 33 34 55

Angolan Embassy in Gaberone, Botswana
Embassy of Angola in Botswana
153, Nelson Mandela Road
Kapamyo – C.P. 111- Gaborone
Tel: (+267) 39 00204
Fax: (+267) 39 75089

Angolan Embassy in Brasilia, Brazil
Embassy of Angola in Brazil
Shis Qi 07 Conjunto 11 – Casa 09
CEP 71615-310, Brasilia – DF
Phone: (55 61) 248 44 89, 248 29 15, 364 30 89
Fax: (55 61) 248 15 67

Angolan Consulate General in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Consulate General of Angola in Brazil
Av. Rio Branco, 311 salas 201 a 209 – Centro
CEP 20040 – Rio de Janeiro – RJ
Tel: (55 22) 20 94 39, 20 93 72, 20 91 04
Fax: (55 22) 20 83 63, 20 40 11

Angolan Embassy in Ottawa, Canada
Embassy of Angola in Canada
189 Laurier Ave. East Ottawa
Ontario K1N 6P1 Canada
Tel: (613) 234-1152, 292 30 01
Fax: (613) 234-1179

Angolan Embassy in Praia, Cape Verde
Embassy of Angola in Cape Verde
Avenida da OUA – CP 78-A
Praia, Cape Verde
Tel: (228) 62 32 35, 62 32 36, 62 32 33
Fax: (238) 62 32 34

Angolan Embassy in Beijing, China
Embassy of Angola in China
1-8-1, Ta Yuan Diplomatic Office Building
Beijing 100600, China
Tel: (86 10) 65 32 69 69, 65 32 68 39, 65 32 69 91
Fax: (86 10) 65 32 69 69, 65 32 69 70, 65 32 69 92

Angolan Consulate General in Hong Kong, China
Consulate General of Angola in China
UNIT 3 – 29th floor
Office Tower Convention Plaza
1 Harbour Road, Wan Chai
Hong Kong
Tel: (00 852) 37 98 38 88
Fax: (00 852) 31 01 06 82, 3101 08 73

Angolan Embassy in Kinshasa, Congo
Embassy of Angola in Congo
4413, Bld du 30 Juin, C/Gombe
BP 8625, Kinshasa 1
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Tel: (243) 999 90 69 27
Fax: (243) 815 56 34 41

Angolan Embassy in Havana, Cuba
Embassy of Angola in Cuba
5ta. Ave. No.1012 e/ 10 y 12
Miramar, Havana, Cuba
Tel: (+53) 7 204 2474
Fax: (537) 204 43 90 / 537 204 04 87

Angolan Embassy in Prague, Czech Republic
Embassy of Angola in Czech Republic
Nad Stolou 18
Patro II
Tel: 376126378441
Fax: 376122482

Angolan Consulate in Brno, Czech Republic
Embassy of Angola in Czech Republic
ul. Hlinky 110
603 00 Brno
Czech Republic
Tel: (+420) 543 124 340
Fax: (+420) 543 124 310

Angolan Embassy in Cairo, Egypt
Embassy of Angola in Egypt
12, Fouad Mohey El Din
Square Mohandessine
Cairo, Egypt
Tel: (+20) 3 3377602, (+20) 3 7498259
Fax: (+20) 3 3378683

Angolan Embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Embassy of Angola in Ethiopia
Rue Bole Road Wrada 18
Kebele 26 House No 006 CP 2962
Tel: 251 1 710118, 251 1 711528
Fax: 251 1 514922

Angolan Embassy in Paris, France
Embassy of Angola in France
19, avenue Foch
75116 Paris, France
Tel: (+33) 1 45 01 58 20
Fax: (+33) 1 45 00 33 71

Angolan Consulate General in Toulouse, France
Consulate General of Angola in France
4, Place Saint-Etienne
31000 Toulouse, France
Tel: (+33) 5 34 32 63 20
Fax: (+33) 5 34 31 64 59

Angolan Consulate General in Paris, France
Consulate General of Angola in France
40, Rue Chalgrin
75116 Paris
Tel: (33 1) 45 01 96 94
Fax: (33 1) 45 00 04 97

Angolan Embassy in Libreville, Gabon
Embassy of Angola in Gabon
Haute de Guegue
BP 2112 – Libreville
Tel: (241) 44 47 30
Fax: (241) 44 47 33 / 76 81 23

Angolan Embassy in Berlin, Germany
Embassy of Angola in Germany
Wallstrasse 58
10179 Berlin, Germany
Tel: +49 (0) 30 – 24 08 97 – 0
Fax: +49 (0) 30 – 24 08 97 – 12

Angolan Consulate General in Dsseldorf, Germany
Consulate General of Angola in Germany
Am Bonneshof 30 (Orion-Haus)
40474 Dsseldorf
Tel: 0049 (0) 211 470 730 4
Fax: 0049 (0) 211 451 539

Angolan Consulate General in Munich, Germany
Consulate General of Angola in Germany
Ismaninger Strasse 102
81675 Mnchen, Germany
Tel: (+49) 89-99 72 75 20
Fax: (+49) 89-99 72 75 99

Angolan Embassy in Athens, Greece
Embassy of Angola in Greece
24, rue El. Venizelou
152 37 Filothei
Athens, Greece
Tel: (+30) 210 689 86 81
Fax: (+30) 210 689 86 83

Angolan Embassy in Budapest, Hungary
Embassy of Angola in Hungary
Alkotas u. 50
1123 Budapest, Hungary
Tel: (+36) 1 325-3080
Fax: (+36) 1 325-3006

Angolan Embassy in New Delhi, India
Embassy of Angola in India
5, Poorvi Marg Vasant Vihar
Vasant Vihar,
110 057
New Delhi, India
Tel: +91-11-26146195/7
Fax: +91-11-26146184/90

Angolan Consulate General in Mumbai, India
Consulate General of Angola in India
141 Atlanta, 14th Floor
Nariman Point
Mumbai 400 021, India
Tel: (+91) 22-2285 1430
Fax: (+91) 22-2287 5467

Angolan Embassy in Tel Aviv, Israel
Embassy of Angola in Israel
Simtat Beit Hashoeva 14
Tel: +972 (3) 6912093
Fax: +972 (3) 6912094

Angolan Embassy in Rome, Italy
Embassy of Angola in Italy
Via Filippo Bernardini 21
00165 Rome, Italy
Tel: 39-6/39366902
Fax: 39-6/634960

Angolan Embassy in Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Embassy of Angola in Ivory Coast
Rue de la Cabebiere,
(impasse) Chemin Les Filaos – Lotte 222-272
Cocody – Abidjan
Tel: (00 225 22) 44 45 91/44 43 00
Fax: (00 225 22) 44 46 52

Angolan Embassy in Tokyo, Japan
Embassy of Angola in Japan
2-10-24 Daizawa
155-0032 Tokyo, Japan
Tel: (813) 54 30 78 72/73/74
Fax: 00 81 3 5712 7481

Angolan Embassy in Mexico City, Mexico
Embassy of Angola in Mexico
Av. Schiller n503
CP 11560 – Mexico DF
Tel: (52 5) 545 58 83/545 44 71/545 46 18
Fax: (52 5) 545 27 33

Angolan Embassy in Rabat, Morocco
Embassy of Angola in Morocco
53, Rue Ahmed
Rifai Km 5 Soussi
Rabat, Morocco
Tel: (+212) (37) 65 92 30
Fax: (+212) (37) 65 92 38, (+212) (37) 65 37 07

Angolan Embassy in Maputo, Mozambique
Embassy of Angola in Mozambique
Avenida Kenneth Kaunda, n 783
C.P. 2954
Maputo, Mozambique
Tel: (+258) 21 493139, 21 493691
Fax: (+258) 21 493930, 21 497320

Angolan Embassy in Windhoek, Namibia
Embassy of Angola in Namibia
Ausspan Street 3
Angola House
Private Bag 12020
Ausspannplatz 9000
Tel: 264061 227535
Fax: 264061-221498

Angolan Consulate General in Rotterdam, Netherlands
Consulate General of Angola in Netherlands
Parklaan, 46
3016 BC Rotterdam
Tel: (31 10) 440 16 60
Fax: (31 10) 440 16 68

Angolan Embassy in Warsaw, Poland
Embassy of Angola in Poland
ul. Balonowa 20
02-635 Warsaw, Poland
Tel: (48 22) 646 35 29/646 72 72/646 87 98
Fax: (48 22) 844 74 52/391 21 94/391 23 05

Angolan Embassy in Lisbon, Portugal
Embassy of Angola in Portugal
Avenida da Rep?lica n 68
1069-213 Lisboa
Tel: (351 21) 782 79 30/794 22 44
Fax: (351 21) 798 64 05

Angolan Consulate General in Porto, Portugal
Consulate General of Angola in Portugal
Rua Alexandre Herculano 352, 5 salas 52/54
4000-053 Porto, Portugal
Tel: (351 22) 31 88 27/31 89 02
Fax: (+351) 222 050 328

Angolan Embassy in Moscow, Russia
Embassy of Angola in Russia
Olof Palme, 6
119590 Moscow
Tel: (7 495) 143 63 24
Fax: (7 495) 956 18 81

Angolan Embassy in Sao Tome, Sao Tome
Embassy of Angola in Sao Tome
Avda. Kwame Nkrumah 45
C.P. 133, Sao Tome
Sao Tome and Principe
Tel: (+239) 222 376
Fax: (+239) 221 362

Angolan Consulate General in Dakar, Senegal
Consulate General of Angola in Senegal
42, rue Paul Holle
BP 2 207
Dakar, Senegal
Tel: (+221) 821 43 26
Fax: (+221) 821 79 74

Angolan Embassy in Belgrade, Serbia
Embassy of Angola in Serbia
Pelagica 32 – Senjak
11000 Belgrade
Tel: (381 11) 36 9 02 41/36 9 32 70/36 93 271
Fax: (381 11) 36 90 171

Angolan Embassy in Singapore, Singapore
Embassy of Angola in Singapore
9 Temasek Boulevard
#44-03 Suntec Tower Two
Singapore 038989
Tel: (+65) 63419360
Fax: (+65) 63419367/68 84 43 04

Angolan Embassy in Bratislava, Slovakia
Embassy of Angola in Slovakia
Mudronova 47
811 03 Bratislava 1
Tel: (+421) 2 5441 2164/5, 2 5930 0521
Fax: (+421) 2 5441 2182

Angolan Embassy in Pretoria, South Africa
Embassy of Angola in South Africa
1030 Schoeman Street
Hatfield 0083
Postal Add:
P O Box 8685
Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
Tel: 012 342 0049
Fax: 012 342 7039

Angolan Consulate General in Cape Town, South Africa
Consulate General of Angola in South Africa
Thibault Pavilion 1st Floor Thibault Square
P O Box 1152
Green Point, 8051
Cape Town, South Africa
Tel: (+27) 21 425 8700/1
Fax: (+27) 21 425 8705

Angolan Consulate General in Johannesburg, South Africa
Consulate General of Angola in South Africa
8th Floor, Lustre House North
334 Bree Street, (Cnr Goud) Johannesburg 2001
Postal Add: P O Box 1079
Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
Tel: (+27) 11 333 2721/5
Fax: (+27) 11 333 1082

Angolan Embassy in Madrid, Spain
Embassy of Angola in Spain
C/ Serrano 64-3
28001 Madrid, Spain
Tel: (34 91) 435 64 30/435 61 66/435 24 15
Fax: (34 91) 577 90 10

Angolan Embassy in Stockholm, Sweden
Embassy of Angola in Sweden
Skeppsbron 8, Box 3199
103 64 Stockholm, Sweden
Tel: (+46) 8 24 28 90
Fax: (+46) 8 34 31 27

Angolan Embassy in Geneva, Switzerland
Embassy of Angola in Switzerland
45-47, rue de Lausanne
C.P. 2554 1211
Tel: 004122/732 30 60
Fax: 004122/732 30 72

Angolan Consulate General in Geneva, Switzerland
Consulate General of Angola in Switzerland
Rue de Lausanne 45-47
1201 Geneve, Switzerland
Tel: (+41) 22 732 30 60
Fax: (+41) 22 732 30 72

Angolan Embassy in Berne, Switzerland
Embassy of Angola in Switzerland
Laubeggstrasse n 18
3006 Berne
Tel: (41 31) 351 85 85
Fax: (41 31) 351 85 86

Angolan Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Embassy of Angola in Tanzania
Malik/Magore Road
Upanga Area Plot n 149
CP 20793
Tel: (255 22) 211 76 74, 213 92 35
Fax: (255 22) 213 23 49

Angolan Embassy in Holy See, Vatican
Embassy of Angola in Vatican
Palazzo Odescalchi
Piazza SS. Apostoli, 81, 1. p.
00187 Roma
Holy See (Vatican City)
Tel: (+39) (06) 691 90650/97
Fax: (+39) (06) 697 8483

Angolan Consulate General in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Consulate General of Angola in United Arab Emirates
Villa No. – 1
79 – Street,
Jumeirah -1
Corner with Al Wasl Road
Dubai – U.A.E
Tel: +971 4 344 75 41
Fax: +971 4 344 75 49

Angolan Embassy in London, United Kingdom
Embassy of Angola in United Kingdom
22 Dorset Street
London W1U 6QY
United Kingdom
Tel: 00 44 (020) 7299 9850
Fax: 00 44 (020) 7486 9397

Angolan Embassy in Washington, DC, United States of America
Embassy of Angola in United States of America
2100-2108 16th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20009
Tel: 202 785 1156/7/8
Fax: 202-785-1258

Angolan Consulate General in New York, United States of America
Consulate General of Angola in United States of America
125 E. 73rd Street
NY 10021
Tel: 212 8615656/8616325
Fax: 212 8619295

Angolan Consulate General in Houston, United States of America
Consulate General of Angola in United States of America
3040 Post Oak Blvd, Suite 780
Galleria Area between Westheimer
and Richmond Avenues
Houston, Texas 77056
United States
Tel: 713-212-3840
Fax: 7132123841

Angolan Consulate General in New York, United States of America
Consulate General of Angola in United States of America
866 United Nations Plaza
East 48th Street, 5th floor
New York, NY, 10017
United States
Tel: (1 212) 980 9615
Fax: (1 212) 980 9606

Angolan Embassy in Lusaka, Zambia
Embassy of Angola in Zambia
Mumada Road, 6660 Olympia Park
CP 31595
Tel: (260 1) 29 22 77
Fax: (260 1) 29 21 63

Angolan Consulate General in Solwezu, Zambia
Consulate General of Angola in Zambia
Independance Avenue, Plot 27
PO 110140 – Solwezi
Tel: (260 8) 82 14 84/82 16 98
Fax: (260 1) 82 16 38

Angolan Embassy in Harare, Zimbabwe
Embassy of Angola in Zimbabwe
26 Speke Avenue
Doncaster House
PO Box, 3950
Tel: 263-4-770075, 263-4-770076
Fax: 263-4-790077

Botswana Visa Requirements, Application, Information, Visas, Information

Botswana Visa Requirements
Who requires a visa?

The following nationals do not require a visa to enter Botswana:
Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Grenada, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Papua New Guinea, Russia (Diplomatic & Official Passport holders), Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Members of all Commonwealth countries:

Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Lichtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Republic of Ireland, San Marino, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, USA and Yugoslavia (except the nationals of Ghana, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh).

All other nationals require a visa to enter Botswana.
What documents will be required?

- Completed immigration supplementary Form D by the applicant (Visa form).
- Letter of support from the host.
- Passport valid for 6 months.
- Two passport size photos (identical).
- Fee of P25.00 (around USD 5)
- Return visa or residence permit from his/her country of residence.
- Return air ticket.
- Confirmation letter from the country if the person is coming for business purposes.

Time required to issue visa:
5 to 14 days, dependent on nationality and type of visa applied for.
How long is the Visa valid for?

Entry visas are valid for a maximum of 30-90 days. No visitor is allowed more than a 90-day stay in every calendar year, unless permission has been granted in the form of a waiver pending the outcome of a residence permit application.

Other information

Note: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required from all travelers over one year of age traveling from infected areas.

Yarn Weights and Yarn Weight Calculations

Yarn Weights

Yarn weights refers to the thickness of yarn used by knitters, weavers, crocheters and other fiber artists. Changing yarn weights or needle size can have a significant impact on the finished project, so standardized systems have been spread about, as well as conversion systems for regional standards (especially needle sizes). Yarn weights are important in achieving the correct gauge or tension for a particular project and can help with yarn substitution. The Craft Yarn Council of America has developed a system that seeks to standardize the labeled yarn weights. Most yarns state their yarn weights on the ball band. Some brands use a standardized numbering system that uses 7 ranges of relative thickness of yarn.

One way of determining the Yarn weights of an unknown yarn is to use the wrapping method.

Wrap the yarn around a large needle or a ruler. Make sure the yarn lies flat. Push the yarn together so there are no gaps between wraps. Smooth it out so it is neither too loose nor too tight. Measure the number of wraps per inch (2.5 cm). For better accuracy, measure the wraps at the center of your yarn sample.

Yarn weights Calculations

The following equation may be used to determine the yarn weights of warp and weft required for a particular fabric:

Weight of warp = (0.65 x qty. of fabric (metres) x no. of warp ends) / count

If there are two colors in the warp, use the following equations:

Weight of color A (kg) = (0.65 x qty. of fabric (metres) x no. of warp ends of color A) / count of color A
Weight of color B (kg) = (0.65 x Qty. of fabric (metres) x no. of warp ends of color B) / count of color B

If the counts of two warps are the same:

Weight of color A (kg) = (total weight of warp reqd. x no. of ends of color A) / total no. of warp ends
Weight of color B (kg) = (total weight of warp reqd. x no. of ends of color B) / total no. of warp ends


Weight of color (B) = total weight of warp reqd. – weight of color A
Weight of weft = (0.6 x qty. of fabric (metres) x PPI x reed space) / count

If there are two colors in the weft:

Weight of color A (kg) = (0.6 x qty. of fabric (metres) x PPI of color A x reed space) / count of color A
Weight of color B (kg) = (0.6 x qty. of fabric (metres) x PPI of color B x reed space) / count of color B


Weight of color (B) = total weight of weft reqd. – weight of color A

Another formula

Reed x width / 7000 = Ans
Ans x quantity (mtr) / count = The weight required(Kg)

Arugula Nutrition Facts, Health Benefits, Uses, Selection

Arugula Nutrition | Health Benefits of Arugula

Arugula, also known as salad rocket, is a nutritious leafy green vegetable of Mediterranean origin. Arugula belongs to the brassicaceae family like mustard greens, cauliflower, kale…etc and has scientific name Eruca sativa.Rocket-salad is a low growing annual herb features dandelion like succulent, elongated, lobular leaves with green veins. Young plant features plain light green color leaves which appear somewhat identical to that of spinach. Young plant has mildly sweet, less peppery leaves.

In general, arugula grows to about 2-3 feet in height with creamy white color flowers with deep purple color veins which will eventually produce thick seed pods.

Health benefits of Arugula

Like other greens, arugula is one of very low calorie vegetable. 100 g of fresh leaves provides just 25 calories. Nonetheless Arugula has many vital phytochemicals, anti-oxidants, vitamins, and minerals that can immensely benefit health.

Arugula salad is rich source of certain phytochemicals such as indoles, thiocyanates, sulforaphane and iso­thiocyanates. Together they have been found to counter carcinogenic effects of estrogen and thus help benefit against prostate, breast, cervical, colon, ovarian cancers by virtue of their cancer cell growth inhibition, cytotoxic effects on cancer cells.

In addition, di-indolyl-methane (DIM), a lipid soluble metabolite of indole has immune modulator, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties ( by potentiating Interferon-Gamma receptors and production). DIM has currently been found application in the treatment of recurring respiratory papillomatosis caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and is in Phase III clinical trials for cervical dysplasia.

Arugula is very good source of folates. 100 g of fresh greens contain 97 mcg or 24% of folic acid. When given around conception period it helps prevent neural tube defects in the newborns.

Like kale, salad Arugula is an excellent source of vitamin A. 100 g fresh leaves contain 1424 mcg of beta carotene and 2373 IU of vitamin A. Beta carotenes converts into vitamin A in the body. Studies found that vitamin A and flavonoid compounds in in green leafy vegetables help protect from skin, lung and oral cavity cancers.

This vegetable also rich in B-complex group of vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), and pantothenic acid those are essential for optimum cellular enzymatic and metabolic functions.

Fresh Arugula leaves contain good levels of vitamin C. Vitamin C is a powerful, natural anti-oxidant. Foods rich in vitamin C helps body protect from scurvy disease; develop resistance against infectious agents (boosts immunity) and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the body.

Salad Arugula is one of the excellent vegetable sources for vitamin-K; 100 g provides about 90% of recommended intake. Vitamin K has potential role bone health by promoting osteotrophic (bone formation and strengthening) activity. Adequate vitamin-K levels in the diet helps limiting neuronal damage in the brain; thus, has established role in the treatment of patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease.

Arugula is good in minerals especially copper and iron. In addition it has small amounts of some other essential minerals and electrolytes such as calcium, iron, potassium, manganese and phosphorus.

Nylon Cloth, Fabric, Material and Nylons Uses

Nylon Cloth

Nylon Cloth is a poly-amide made from petroleum. It is lightweight, strong and durable. It allows easy evaporation and dries quickly. The wearer feels less friction between garments and outer clothing. Nylon Fabric is widely used as apparel, home furnishings, industrial applications and geo-textiles.

Nylon was first produced commercially in the year 1939 by the E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc. It became a household word in the year 1940 when it was knitted first time into hosiery. In 1942, it was used as parachutes, flak vests, combat uniforms, tires and other such articles in the armed forces. Today, it is widely used worldwide next to cotton and polyester.

Nylon Cloth blends well. They are blended with other fibers have good dimensional stability, elastic recovery, shape retention, and abrasion resistance properties. Nylon Cloth is very resilient, hence after blending it helps in eliminating the crushing of napped fabrics such as velvet.

Nylon Cloth Properties

  • is lightweight and very strong.
  • is stretchable.
  • drapes well.
  • is durable.
  • is smooth.
  • dries quickly.
  • Nylon Cloth is easy to clean, as dirt does not cling.
  • is resistant to abrasion and chemicals.
  • Nylon Cloth does not absorb moisture well, hence it can be hot and clammy in the heat.
  • is static.

Nylon Cloth Uses

  • used in women’s hosiery and lingerie due to its high elongation and excellent elastic recovery quality. It is also used as sportswear, jackets, pants, skirts, raincoats, ski and snow apparel, windbreakers and children-wear.
  • Nylon Cloth used in carpeting materials and upholstery fabrics because it is easy to clean and does not require special protection against moths and carpet beetles. Rugs, curtains, draperies and bedspreads are made from this fabric.
  • used as luggage, back packets, life vests, umbrellas, sleeping bags and tents.
  • used as seat belts, tire cords, ballistic cloth and towropes because of its strength and good elasticity.

Types of Nylon Cloth

  • Ripstop
  • Cordura
  • Ballistic
  • Coated
  • Waterproof
  • Denier
  • Woven

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