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Kota Doria Sarees Overview and Patterns

Kota Doria

Kota in Rajasthan, India is the home of the famous Kota Doria sari made in small villages around the Kota city. Kota Doria is a super transparent yet stable cotton or cotton/silk weave consisting of varied guages of yarn, creating an almost graph like pattern called khats (squares formed between the different thicknesses of fibers). The intermittent heavier gauge yarns give the fabric enough weight and lateral stability to fall very gracefully, yet it is incredibly airy and transparent. Generally, these pieces are worn in the heat of summer.

The chequered weave of a Kota Doria sari is a prized possession of many women. The gossamer-fine fabric Kota doria is the finest weaves in India – so fine that they are almost weightless. The spinning, dyeing and weaving are done by skilled artisans and it takes many men hours to do so. The Kota region’s craft is exquisite in its perfection. The Kota Doria weave is very special; the warp and the weft use a combination of threads creating a fine chequered pattern where the cotton provides firmness while the silk lends the gossamer finish to the fabric.

Besides the chequered pattern, there are other weaves in complicated designs in a combination of silk and cotton. The standard Kota doria yardage, in sari width, is always woven in white and later dyed in different colors. Some of the weaves also have a narrow border edged with Zari. In the case of saris with designs, the threads are dyed prior to weaving. Ideal for hot summer, this is a muslin fabric woven with alternating threads of silk and cotton in both warp and weft in an open weave.

Synthetic Sapphire Value and Synthetic Sapphires Info

Synthetic Sapphire

Synthetic Sapphire material is identical to natural sapphire, except it can be made without the flaws that are found in natural stones. It is industrially produced from agglomerated aluminium oxide, sintered and fused in an inert atmosphere (hot isostatic pressing for example), yielding a transparent polycrystalline product, slightly porous, or with more traditional methods such as Verneuil, Czochralski, flux method, etc., yielding a single crystal sapphire material which is non-porous and should be relieved of its internal stress. Many methods of manufacturing sapphire today are variations of the Czochralski process, which was invented in 1916.

One application of synthetic sapphire is sapphire glass. Sapphire is not only highly transparent to wavelengths of light between 150 nm (UV) and 5500 nm (IR), but is also extraordinarily scratch-resistant. Sapphire has a value of 9 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness.

It is used for shatter resistant windows in armored vehicles and various military body armor suits, in association with composites. A common use of it is in sapphire optical windows.

In 2012 the world’s production of synthetic sapphire was 2500 tons (1.25 × 109 carats), mostly by the United States and Russia. The availability of cheap synthetic sapphire unlocked many industrial uses for this unique material.

Umbrella Fabric Overview and Uses

Umbrella Fabric

Umbrella fabric is sophisticated and at the same time also is waterproof. It retains the color for years even though it is exposed to sunlight and rain. It cleans easily with soapy water and is resistant to rot, mildew, pool chlorine and salt spray.

Umbrella fabric undergoes a solution-dying process. This process locks the color into the fibers so that they can’t wash out or fade. It is always tested for UV protection. Whites and lighter colored Umbrella Fabric is less protective than the darker fabrics which have more depth of color.

Umbrella fabric contains literally millions of tiny holes due to its open-weave knitting. Umbrella Fabric allow the air to flow freely through. The breathing effects reduce the temperatures underneath the umbrella.

Umbrella fabric is made from canvas, linen, dupione, striped, and jacquard fabrics. These are all furniture grade fabrics and are used to make matching umbrellas. Awning fabric is typically used for umbrellas and umbrella covers as it is stiffer and stronger.

Umbrella fabric comes in various designs, either printed or embroidered. In embroidery, to give solid designs, heavy tearaway fabrics are used and a lighter tear away for open designs. After the embroidery, the umbrella is attached to spines.

Characteristics of Umbrella Fabric

  • It is waterproof.
  • It has color retaining quality.
  • It is easy washable.
  • It is rot, mildew, pool chlorine and salt spray resistant.
  • It is stiff.
  • It is strong.

Leather Stamping Patterns, Designs, Tools, Camouflage, Pear Shader, Shell Tool, Beveler

Leather Stamping | Leather Stamping Patterns | Leather Stamping Designs

Leather stamping involves the use of shaped implements (stamps) to create an imprint onto a leather surface, often by striking the stamps with a mallet.

Commercial stamps are available in various designs, typically geometric or representative of animals. Most stamping is performed on vegetable tanned leather that has been dampened with water, as the water makes the leather softer and able to be compressed by the design being pressed or stamped into it. After the leather has been stamped, the design stays on the leather as it dries out, but it can fade if the leather becomes wet and is flexed. To make the impressions last longer, the leather is conditioned with oils and fats to make it water-proof and prevent the fibers from deforming.
Leather Stamping Tools
Camouflage tool

This tool, which creates an impression similar to that of a sea shell, is used to add emphasis to areas of a carving, often in the stem or down the centre of a leaf in a floral design. It is used in a similar way to other stamping tools, by holding it vertically over the leather and striking with the rawhide mallet. When using the Camouflage tool, the impressions created should be equally spaced, starting from the centre of the design and working out towards the tips of the stems or leaves in the design. The impressions should get progressively lighter.
Pear Shader

The Pear shader is used to press down areas of the design that need to appear curved. The action of the pear shader causes the leather tooled by it to appear slightly darker. The pear shader is slightly unusual in that it may be tilted during use to provide the desired effect. It should be moved only slightly between each tap with the mallet so that it creates a consistent shading of the leather.
Veiner Tool | Shell Tool

These tools create a curved impression of a series of short, closely spaced lines. They may be used interchangeably, the only difference being that the veiner creates a simple curved line, while the shell tool has a pattern resembling the edge of a scallop along the inside edge. They are used to continue to create the impression of depth created by the beveler, and to create the impression of a curved surface. These tools are used in the usual way, but like the pear shader, may also be tilted to help create the impression of depth where they are used beside a cut.
Seeder

The seeder creates a small circular impression, that is used to represent seeds. As the face of this tool is so small, care must be taken when striking that you do not cut right through the leather. If stamping an area using this tool, stamp around the outside first, then fill in the centre.
Background tool

This step in producing a carved leather article is used to emphasise the design, and is not even necessary in some cases. It consists of the pushing down of any areas of leather that have not been already carved. The background tool has a crosshatched pattern on its head, which has the effect of significantly darkening the leather it is used on. As with the seeder, the face of this tool is often small, so care must be taken not to strike it too hard.

When using this tool, take care that the impressions created by it do not overlap, and also take care not to stamp into the design or over the border. When the entire face of the tool is not needed, or to create tidy corners, the tool can be tilted so only part of the face creates an impression.
Beveler

This tool is used to create an indention on one side of a cut so that one side is raised. This tool, when used correctly, can produce very realistic results. There are many variations of this tool that include a variety of shapes, such as diamonds or ovals. There is also a variety of faces that include striped, checked, rounded,smoothed, and crosshatched.

History of Weaving,Warp Yarn,Weft Yarn,Machinery

History of Weaving

History of Weaving – Textile Weaving or Fabric Weaving is a procedure of creation of material with interlace of two or more sets of yarns using a constant device known as loom. Mankind have began using the weaved materials since the attracted of historical past. If we exclude the stone age period, we may quickly say the historical past of culture is also, somewhat, the historical past of weaving. Aitken says there is proof that the Egyptians created weaved materials over 6000 decades ago.

History of Weaving – Though basic cultures used coarser threads to make materials which were raw and rough, there are sources of excellent materials created from filament of cotton in Chinese suppliers. Silk was one of the most important item in Chinese suppliers 4000 decades ago. In Indian too, there endured some of the greatest side weaved materials.

History of Weaving – Warp Yarn

In weaving, the warp is the set of lengthwise yarns through which the weft is weaved. Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a warp end. Warp means that which is tossed across . When weaving with a loom, the warp yarns are fully linked before weaving starts. Warp is spun fiber. The spin of the fiber can be in either an s twist or a z twist. These twist directions create yarn that is similar to hands. Each the reverse of the other.

History of Weaving – These fibers provided a strong enough thread to be presented under stress as the warp. With the upgrades in spinning technology during the Business Trend, it became possible to create natural organic cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used as the warp. Later, synthetic or man-made fibers such as plastic or natural organic cotton were employed. The weft is the string that is weaved back and forth through the warp to create fabric.

History of Weaving – Weft Yarn

In weaving, weft or woof is the string which is drawn under and over parallel warp yarns to create a fabric. The weft is a thread or yarn of unique fiber. The unique fiber was fleece coat, flax or natural silk cotton. These days, many artificial materials are used in weaving. Because the weft does not have to be expanded in the way that the warp is, it can generally be less strong. The weft is threaded through the warp using a shuttle.

History of Weaving – Hand looms were the unique weaver’s tool, with the shuttle being threaded through at the same time raised warps manually. Innovations during the 1700s stimulated the Business Trend, and the hand loom became the more solid spinning frame with the flying shuttle boosting up production of fabric, and then the water frame using water energy to improve the weaving process. The Power loom followed in the 1800s, when steam energy was utilized.

History of Weaving – Handloom industry

It is still not certain when the weaving process was presented to human community. It is clear from many traditional information that weaving began long before the time of God Jesus. Except few actions else where, the significant improvements in material took place in England. In England the significant switch from farming to wool market came in the 14 100 decades. During all these decades and a few 100 decades after 14 100 decades, the material was created on hand-looms which were not outfitted with fly shuttle. Prior to Business Trend, weaved materials was created by at least two people employed on loom.

History of Weaving – In 1733, Bob Kay designed the fly shuttle which permitted weft to be loaded more quickly. Bob Kay, a weaver, further included a process with which, a weaver could sit at the center of the loom and merely take the manage to make the shuttle move from one end of the fabric to insert a weft thread.

History of Weaving – As a result of improved weaving speed, the hand spinning method of yarn production could not meet the requirement of fly shuttle looms and therefore the mechanical spinning is also designed quickly in England with Hargreave’s rotating Jill (1770), Ark Writh’s rotating machine (1769) and cromption rotating mule (1779). The progression of the mechanical spinning system caused further improvements in the loom. Edmund Island Wright, an British local clergy man, designed a so called powerloom which could be managed from a single point by two powerful man.

History of Weaving – Powerlooms

Previously edition of powerloom were run by two man. Luckily steam energy was available by 1765. Soon powerlooms were pushed by water and most of the wood made areas were changed with metal. After the invention of the steam engine and cast iron in beginning 1800, great attention was paid to improving efficiency of it. To help obtain the improve in efficiency, Bill Radeliffe trademarked a attire shape in 1803 for measurement and blow drying the warp threads before turning on to a weavers beam. Fast progression in the loom took place and by 1821 there were over 50,000 looms in function in some 32 generators in the northern of Britain. In just over 10 years from that time frame, the number had improved to some 1,00,000 and the primary loom had almost designed to it we know these days. Also between 1819 and 1842 the normal rate of the powerloom had improved from 60 to 140 choices per instant with the improve on efficiency, as a result Britain became globe’s wealthiest business energy.

History of Weaving – Automatic Looms

Traditional looms then were ceased every few moments to be able to substitute the clear weft pirns or cop in the shuttle and this restricted the number of looms, a weaver could work to about four. Wayne Northrop, an British man who emigrated to The united states and proved helpful for the Draper Organization, accomplished an automated weft exchange system which changed the weft pirn in the shuttle without decreasing or avoiding the loom in 1889. This process permitted the weaver to manage 16 looms. The Northrop Automatic looms easily came to use in The united states, so that by 1930, 90% of the United states looms were automated in contrast to only 5% in England. Identical improvements took place elsewhere also, Ruti, a significant loom manufacturer of Europe produced automated bobbin modifying Northrop loom in 1898. In Asia also, Toyoda, Sakamoto, Tsudakoma, etc also designed shuttle looms with automated weft exchange. After World War II, more performance and performance were important to get over improving manual work expenditures in European nations. It was also realized that more performance is the key to decreasing developing expenditures of the loom. All efforts were powerful to learning various aspects impacting rate of the loom and the loom with faster were made available.

History of Weaving – Limitations of Shuttle Looms

Despite the relatively high-speed and advantages in loom with conventional picking, efficiency of these devices will keep be restricted as long as their essential designs engaged the use of a shuttle propulsion. Vincent has proven that the energy necessary for picking is proportional to the cube of the loom speed. If the loom rate is improved from 200 to 300 choices per instant, the energy need would improve by a aspect of (3/2)3 i.e. 3.4 times somewhere around.

History of Weaving – This outcomes in following disadvantages

Greater strain imposed on the picking mechanism, thus rendering it liable to frequent failure.

Greater amount of noise and vibration.

Because of superior energy in shuttle, greater strain is again imposed on the checking mechanism.

The movement of shuttle will be more difficult to control and there will be a greater possibility of its ejection from the loom.

History of Weaving – The dynamic problems created by the picking and checking mechanism and the inherent process of pirn winding for shuttle looms had encouraged the loom makers to develop alternative means of weft insertion in which heavy shuttle is not projected forwards and backwards across the width of the loom. It is customary to refer these looms as shuttleless looms.

History of Weaving – The various shuttleless loom that have been developed over a period of about 50 years can be classified into various groups.

Projectile Looms

Rapier Looms

Fluid Jet Looms

Multiphase Looms

How to Clean Nubuck and Cleaning Nubuck

How to Clean Nubuck

How to Clean Nubuck include not to use liquid leather cleaners or conditioners on nubuck leather. It is not strongly protected and liquids will darken and mash the leather fibers.

To restore the brushed nubuck look and feel you can use some simple household products. Because the leather is sanded when it is made, you can brush or sand the surface of the leather without harming it. How to Clean Nubuck include Trying a 600 grit sandpaper or a stiff nylon brush and brush back and forth over the surface of the nubuck in a brisk back and forth, seam to seam motion. The sanding will create a dirt and leather dust. How to Clean Nubuck include using a soft dry, cloth to wipe off the dust. Repeat the process for each seat, arm, backrest seam to seam.

If a specific spot on the nubuck is stained try a similar method. How to Clean Nubuck include Using your fingernail first, then a folded piece of 600 grit sandpaper on the spot. It may be lighter and slightly scratched looking so rub firmly and briskly over the area with the same soft cloth.

Sometimes a dark stain will not brush out of nubuck leather. Often it is because the stain has an oil base to it. In this case you need to try to draw the oil out of the leather asap after it is stained. How to Clean Nubuck trying placing a pinch of cornstarch on the stain. Let it sit overnight. The next morning if the cornstarch has yellowed than it has pulled out some of the oil. Brush it off and repeat the process until the stain can be brushed out. If this method doesn’t work you can buy specific degreasing pastes which are more efficient at pulling oils from leather than cornstarch.

Before you even get any stains, nubuck leather will benefit from a spray protection being applied to its surface. But be sure that you or the pro you hire use a spray made for suede/nubuck/aniline leather so the finish is not compromised.

Hemp Plant, Cultivation, Fiber, Hemp Plants Use

Hemp Plant

The Hemp Plant known as Cannabis Sativa, is a flowering plant or herb that has been cultivated for centuries for a multitude of purposes.

Hemp Plant is an extremely robust and versatile plant that has many ecological benefits. The cultivation of Hemp Plant has a positive impact on the environment, and it is one of the most environmentally sustainable crops that can be grown. It reinvigorates the soil and has a supportive influence on the biodiversity of the environment wherever it is planted.

The hemp plant is also naturally resistant to pests, and therefore does not require the use of pesticides, herbicides, or fungicides. Its large upper leaves naturally push out weeds and it grows very quickly, maturing in three to four months as well as using less water than crops such as cotton.

Hemp Plant is also highly useful and can be grown for the purpose of manufacturing a wide variety of industrial and consumer products. In fact, it is probably one of the most useful plants known to humanity, as nearly every part of the hemp plant can be utilized in some way.

Hemp fiber, which comes from the stalks of the Hemp Plant, is known as bast. It is extremely durable and is known for its comfort, strength, resistance to mold and ultraviolet light, as well as its absorbent qualities. Hemp Plant produces 250% more fiber than cotton. It is also stronger than cotton and can be used to make clothing, shoes, paper, canvas, carpeting, rope, bags, luggage, home furnishings, construction materials, biodegradable plastics, and even auto parts. It can be used to create building materials that are twice as strong as wood or concrete.

Suman Prabha Lakra Resume – Textile Designer

SUMAN PRABHA LAKRA
DATE OF BIRTH: 1st oct.1991
MOBILE NO: 9094342027
E-MAIL: suman.prabha118@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
My objective is to seek a distinctive position in a ‘textile & clothing’ industry that will grant me a position in creative environment and accelerate my designing skills and punch me to grow as a professional.

EXPERIENCE
 Undergone as a trainee in a two months Industrial textile Internship under the company Indian Emporium, Hyderabad and worked under Designer Gaurang Shah.
 Graduation project: worked as a visual merchandiser and interior
Designer in level next-a unit of M.A Jacob’s carpets & furnishings
 Textile Designer at Atlantic Fabrics,Karur

DESIGN PROFICIENCY

 Good hand at creating print patterns(screen & digital)
 Strong surface manipulation skills
 Good understanding of weaves(jacquard & dobby)
 Can create designs understanding the market and trend analysis
 Strong conception & visualisation
 Well equipped in handling diverse medium like water colours, pencil colours, charcoal, oil pastels
 Eye for colour sensibility and textures
 Advanced Digital Photography
 Documentation & Presentation

INPUTS
 Strong time management & communication skill
 Excellent follow up & completion of task
 Team player with good interpersonal skill
 Good idea of marketing and management
 Sample co-ordination
 Professional ethics

SUMAN PRABHA LAKRA
DATE OF BIRTH: 1st oct.1991
MOBILE NO: 9094342027
E-MAIL: suman.prabha118@gmail.com

TECHNICAL PROFICIENCY

Well equipped with softwares:
 MS Office
 Adobe Photoshop
 Corel Draw
 Textronics,
 Ned Graphics
 Adobe Flash
 Texcelle
 Nedgraphics

ACHIEVEMENTS

 Active participant and winner in quiz, debate & elecution during school level.
 Designed the cover page for the college CONVERGE report
 Core volunteer in the NIFT Spectrum Committee.

EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

 Classical Dance performed in college functions like college fest, annual function.
 Participant of state level science exhibition.
 Participant of state level dance competition
 Member of college kabbadi and throw ball team

ACADEMIC PROJECTS
Two weeks craft Research & Documentation at Kumbakonam ,Tamil Nadu,learnt about temple appliqué ,techniques, process,did a design intervention in the form of products and a document to uplift the
Languishing craft.

INDUSTRIAL EXPOSURE
Industrial visits to industries like Anglo-French Textiles, Concorde Textiles

PERSONAL INFORMATION
Gender: female
Age: 22
Personal skills: positive attitude, punctual, efficient
Languages known: English, Hindi, Oriya, Bengali, Tamil.
Contact Address:Atlantic fabrics
Amaravathi nagar
Andankoil post
Karur-639002

Types of Panties – Full Panties, Classic Panties

Types of Panties

There are various types of panties that women can wear and choose from but it’s hard at times to pick the right ones with wide choices of fabric, colors, types and cuts available. Picking the right panty is absolutely not an easy task and it can be quite interesting.

Types of Panties – Full Panty

A full panty is very popular for its comfort. It fully covers the back and rises up to the waste or maybe just below the navel.

Types of Panties – Classic Panties

Classic Panties has the sides covered and extends below the hips. You will mostly see these with girls under puberty because it’s conservative and simple enough.

Types of Panties – French Cut Panties

French Cut Panties also called high-cut brief because the side exposes more of the hips. It’s a bit sexier than the other briefs because it shows more skin.

Types of Panties – Boyleg Briefs

Boyleg Briefs also called boyshorts, are styled after men’s briefs. It looks straight across the top and below, covering the hips in full, and it has extra fabric inside the inner thighs.

Types of Panties – Control Briefs

Control Briefs extends above the waist to offer support and give a slim appearance. Because of the nature of this type of panty, a stretchable type of fabric is needed, such as spandex is used to make one of these.

Types of Panties – Hipsters

Hipsters sit on the hips and are more like briefs but the top half is not there, giving the sides more material and a full coverage on the back.

Types of Panties – Bikini

The bikini and string bikini, have full coverage on the back and sit higher on the hips rather than on the waist. The bikini has a thin, narrow side, and the string bikini has a string width side.

Types of Panties – Tanga

It gives full back coverage but the waistband is reduced to a narrow strip at the sides.

Laser Hair Removal Side Effects Overview

Laser Hair Removal Side Effects

Laser Hair Removal Side Effects

  • Long-term data on safety and effectiveness have not been accurately established.
  • Response rates have not been established.
  • Laser Hair Removal Side Effects include Regrowth rates have not been accurately established and cannot be predicted due to numerous variables.
  • Generally not as effective on unpigmented (gray) hairs and red or blonde hair.
  • Must be used very cautiously (if at all) on darker skin tones or on consumers who tan themselves.
  • Improper treatment can cause burns, lesions, skin discoloration lasting several months, or patchy/patterned regrowth.
  • Recent data suggest other skin structures are often affected by laser irradiation, and long term effects of this constitute an unknown risk.
  • Requires eye protection.
  • Can be expensive.
  • Some find treatment painful.
  • Regulation varies by state, so inadequate controls exist to ensure competent practitioners.
  • Some consumers, even ideal candidates, do not respond to treatment.
  • Pain, tingling and numbness around the treated area by the laser are probably the most common side effects that can be considered normal.
  • It is important to keep the area clean after the procedure or you could end up getting an infection after the treatment.

Textile, Apparel, Fashion, Beauty, Jewelry, Leather and Footwear

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