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Overview of Color Wheel : Colors of the Color Wheel

Overview of Color Wheel : Colors of the Color Wheel, The Color Circle, Color Vision, Color Basics, Color Wheels, Paint Color Mixing, Color Wheel Software, Twelve Major HSVcolor Wheel Colors, Color Schemes

Overview of Color Wheel

A Color Wheel (also referred to as a Color Circle) is a visual representation of colors arranged according to their chromatic relationship. Begin a color wheel by positioning primary hues equidistant from one another, then create a bridge between primaries using secondary and tertiary colors

The color wheel can be divided into ranges that are visually active or passive. Active colors will appear to advance when placed against passive hues. Passive colors appear to recede when positioned against active hues.

Advancing hues are most often thought to have less visual weight than the receding hues.

Most often warm, saturated, light value hues are “active” and visually advance.

Cool, low saturated, dark value hues are “passive” and visually recede.

Tints or hues with a low saturation appear lighter than shades or highly saturated colors.

Some colors remain visually neutral or indifferent.

Color relationships may be displayed as a color wheel or a color triangle.
Colors Of The Color Wheel

A typical artists’ paint or pigment color wheel includes the blue, red, and yellow primary colors. The corresponding secondary colors are green, orange & violet. The tertiary colors are red-orange, red-violet, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-violet and blue-green.

A color wheel based on RGB (red, green, blue) or RGV (red, green, violet) additive primaries has cyan, magenta, and yellow secondaries (cyan was previously known as cyan blue). Alternatively, the same arrangement of colors around a circle can be described as based on cyan, magenta, and yellow subtractive primaries, with red, green, and blue (or violet) being secondaries.

Most color wheels are based on three primary colors, three secondary colors, and the six intermediates formed by mixing a primary with a secondary, known as tertiary colors, for a total of 12 main divisions; some add more intermediates, for 24 named colors. Other color wheels, however, are based on the four opponent colors, and may have four or eight main colors.

Goethe’s Theory of Colours provided the first systematic study of the physiological effects of color (1810). His observations on the effect of opposed colors led him to a symmetric arrangement of his color wheel.
The Color Circle and Color Vision

A color circle based on spectral wavelengths will appear with red at one end of the spectrum and violet at the other, and with a wedge-shaped gap representing colors which have no unique spectral frequency; these extra-spectral colors, the purples, are rather formed by the additive mixture of colors from the two ends of the spectrum.

In normal human vision, wavelengths of between about 400nm and 700nm are represented by this incomplete circle, with the longer wavelengths equating to the red end of the spectrum. Complements are located directly opposite each other on this wheel. These complements are not identical to those in pigment mixing (such as are used in paint), but when lights are additively mixed in the correct proportions will appear as a neutral grey or white.

The color circle is used for, among other purposes, illustrating additive color mixture. Combining two colored lights from different parts of the spectrum may produce a third color that appears like a light from another part of the spectrum, even though dissimilar wavelengths are involved. This type of color matching is known as metameric matching. Thus a combination of green and red light might produce a color close to yellow in apparent hue. The newly-formed color lies between the two original colors on the color circle, but they are usually represented as being joined by a straight line on the circle, the location of the new color closer to the (white) centre of the circle indicating that the resulting hue is less saturated (i.e., paler) than either of the two source colors. The combination of any two colors in this way will always be less saturated than the two pure spectral colors individually.

Objects may be viewed under a variety of different lighting conditions. The human visual system is able to adapt to these differences by chromatic adaptation. This aspect of the visual system is relatively easy to mislead, and optical illusions relating to color are therefore a common phenomenon. The color circle is a useful tool for examining these illusions.
Color Basics

Color is the perceptual characteristic of light described by a color name. Specifically, color is light, and light is composed of many colors-those we see are the colors of the visual spectrum: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Objects absorb certain wavelengths and reflect others back to the viewer. We perceive these wavelengths as color.

A color is described in three ways: by its name, how pure or desaturated it is, and its value or lightness. Although pink, crimson, and brick are all variations of the color red, each hue is distinct and differentiated by its chroma, saturation, intensity, and value.

Chroma, intensity, saturation and luminance/value are inter-related terms and have to do with the description of a color.

Chroma: How pure a hue is in relation to gray Saturation: The degree of purity of a hue.

Intensity: The brightness or dullness of a hue. One may lower the intensity by adding white or black.

Luminance / Value: A measure of the amount of light reflected from a hue. Those hues with a high content of white have a higher luminance or value.

Shade and tint are terms that refer to a variation of a hue.

Shade: A hue produced by the addition of black.

Tint: A hue produced by the addition of white
Color Wheels and Paint Color Mixing

There is no straight-line relationship between the colors mixed in pigment, which will vary from medium to medium. Whereas with a psychophysical color circle, the resulting hue of any mixture of two colored light sources can be determined simply by the relative brightness and wavelength of the two lights, a similar calculation cannot be performed with two paints. As such, a painter’s color wheel is indicative rather than predictive, being used to compare existing colors rather than calculate exact colors of mixtures. Because of differences relating to the medium, different color wheels may be created according to the type of paint or other medium used, and many artists make their own individual color wheels. These will often contain only blocks of color rather than the gradation between tones which is characteristic of the color circle.

Color Wheel Software

A number of interactive color wheel applications are available both on the internet and as desktop applications. These programs are used by artists and designers to simplify the task of picking matching colors for a design.

The Twelve Major HSV Color-Wheel Colors

The HSV color wheel is a commonly used color wheel. The twelve primary, secondary, and tertiary colors of this color wheel are derived from RGB coordinates where one or two coordinates is at the maximum value of 255, one or two is at the minimum value of 0, and in the case of the tertiary colors of the HSV color wheel, one may be at the half-scale value of 127, yielding hue angles in multiples of 30 degrees, and with both saturation and value equal to their maximum possible value of 1.

The six primary and secondary colors of this color wheel are named in the web colors and X11 colors, with minor variations. The additive primaries, red, green (web color lime), and blue, are the primary colors of the HSV color wheel. The subtractive primaries, yellow, cyan (aqua), and magenta (fuchsia), are the secondary colors of the HSV color wheel.

The tertiary colors have no consistent set of web color names: orange (not the same as web color orange), the web color chartreuse (chartreuse green), spring green, azure (not the same as the web color), violet (not the same as the web color), and rose (no named X11 or web color) are the tertiary colors of the HSV color wheel.
Color Schemes

Color schemes are logical combinations of colors on the color wheel.

In color theory, a color scheme is the choice of colors used in design for a range of media. For example, the use of a white background with black text is an example of a common default color scheme in web design.

Color schemes are used to create style and appeal. Colors that create an aesthetic feeling when used together will commonly accompany each other in color schemes. A basic color scheme will use two colors that look appealing together. More advanced color schemes involve several colors in combination, usually based around a single color; for example, text with such colors as red, yellow, orange and light blue arranged together on a black background in a magazine article.

Color schemes can also contain different shades of a single color for example, a color scheme that mixes different shades of green, ranging from very light (almost white) to very dark.

How to Make Perfume,How to Make Your Own Perfume

How to Make Perfume

How to Make Perfume – Perfume is made from about 78% to 95% of specially denatured ethyl alcohol and a remainder of essential oils.

Perfume is the costliest form of fragrance with 22% of essential oils. Eau de Parfum (EDP), comes next with between 15 and 22% essential oils. That’s followed by Eau de Toilette (EDT) with 8 to 15% oils.

How to Make Perfume – The weaker Eau de Cologne has just 4% essential oils. For those who crave super subtlety Eau Fraiche with 1 to 3% essential oils, is the lightest dilution of fragrance.

How to Make Perfume – Many new perfumes are promoted as EDPs and an EDT is not always produced as there has been a vogue for Eau de Parfum as individuals want a more lasting signature.

How to Make Perfume – Typical animal products used in perfume include musk from the male musk deer, ambergris from sperm whales, castoreum a secretion of the beaver and civet from the civet cat. All are used as fixatives and add an indefinable mystery to the smell at the same time.

Alcohol Based Method

Add 15-30% essential oils of various kinds to 70-85% (100 proof) Vodka, stir slowly, cover and let stand in a dark cool place for 48 hours.

Add 5% spring water(not tap water) and stir again thoroughly, let stand another 24 hours.

If you put it in a dark colored bottle it will last as long as store-bought perfumes. Experiment with different blends of essential oils to create a blend that you like. Typical essential oils that you may use could be: lavender, jasmine, ylang-ylang, juniper, patchouli etc. These are available at health stores and such.

How to Make Perfume – Easy Method

Get things you know smell nice, like lavender, rosemary, etc.

Put them all in a pot and grind them with a mortar and pestle.

Add some water to the mixture (about 10/11 drops of fresh water)

Add a drop of alcohol (It really does help).

Strain mixture to get rid of leaves, etc.

Put the perfume in a spray pot, or if you add less water you can put it in a small pot, and use it like an oil.

Napkin Folding Techniques, Napkin Folds Types

Napkin Folding Techniques

>Napkin Folding Techniques – Arrow Napkin Fold

  • Place the medium-sized white, or any colored napkin on the table. Fold it in half in such a manner that the open end is facing you.
  • Napkin Folding Techniques to Take the right corner and fold it toward the center, bringing it in. The shape now should look like as if the left side is a square and the right side is an upside-down triangle.
  • Repeat the previous step on the left side as well. Now your napkin’s shape resembles a large triangle.
  • Take the right flap and diagonally fold it outward. The outer edge should be lined with the far edge of the napkin.
  • Repeat the previous step on the left side as well. Now slide both the sides together, so that the napkin bends inward on each side. The center part will come up in a slight loop and your napkin is shaped like an arrow.

>Napkin Folding Techniques – Heart Napkin Fold

  • Place an ironed medium-sized white, or any colored napkin on the table. Fold it in half in such a manner that the open end is facing you.
  • Make one more fold in the middle so that you are left with a long rectangle-shaped napkin. Fold the right side upward and vertically.
  • Napkin Folding Techniques include to Repeat the previous step on the left side as well. The bottom of the napkin will become a pointed triangle.
  • The shape of the napkin will resemble the heart. All you have to do is tuck the flaps in the corner underneath the napkin and you’re done.

>Napkin Folding Techniques – Bird of Paradise Napkin Fold

  • Place the medium-sized white, or any colored napkin on the table. Fold it in half in such a manner that the open end is facing you.
  • Now again fold the napkin in quarters so that it resembles a square. Next, fold it half diagonally, which will make a triangle shape.
  • Point the triangle in such a manner that the open tip is facing your side. Hold the napkin with your left hand and diagonally fold the right corner towards you. The fold should line along the center-line and the tip should be pointing in your direction.
  • Repeat the previous step on the left side as well. To make the hold stay, place an iron on it for few minutes. You can see that the napkin has taken the shape of a diamond.
  • Napkin Folding Techniques include to Fold the two flaps together so that you have the original triangle shape again. Place an iron on it again to hold it in place.
  • Fold this triangle in half so that the center seam is facing you, leaving the ends to fall.
  • To give your bird some feathers, hold the base and pull on the four flaps upward that the corner of the napkin has created. There you have it, your bird of paradise is ready.

>Napkin Folding Techniques – Diamond Napkin Fold

  • Place the medium-sized white, or any colored napkin on the table. Fold it in half in such a manner that the open end is facing you.
  • Now again fold the napkin in quarters so that it resembles a square. Next, fold the top layer of the napkin diagonally. Just pull it up and move it to your left.
  • Follow the previous step with the second layer but stop slightly before the last fold. The folds should look even, yet giving a staggered effect.
  • This way you will have to make four even folds, stopping at even distance from each other. Take the napkin in your hands and fold both sides under it to create the shape of a diamond.
  • Make sure it is as flat as possible and your diamond napkin fold will be ready.

>Napkin Folding Techniques – Pinwheel Napkin Fold

  • Place an ironed medium-sized white, or any colored napkin on the table. Take all four tips and fold it inward, toward the center.
  • Make a fold right down the middle, vertically. The shape should resemble a vertical rectangle.
  • Napkin Folding Techniques to Take both the halves and fold them halfway up and down, towards each other. Make both the edges meet on the center line. You can see that both the sides’ open flaps are facing up.
  • Take one flap from the bottom-half and pull it out to the right side and to make a point. Repeat the same thing on the left side as well.
  • Take the open right flap and bring it down, towards you. Turn the napkin upside down and repeat the previous steps on the other two flaps.
  • Your pinwheel fold is ready with all the four corners pointing outward.

>Napkin Folding Techniques – Rose Napkin Fold

  • Place an ironed medium-sized white, or any colored napkin on the table. Take all four tips and fold it inward, toward the center.
  • Flip the napkin upside down. Fold all four pointed corner and make them meet on the center line.
  • All the tips will be folded about ¼ square size on top of the napkin. Now, before we go to the next step, place a glass upside down in the center of the napkin.
  • Put some pressure on the glass with your left hand and pull the flaps out from underneath the napkin. These flaps will look like petals for your rose fold.
  • Once all four flaps are out, take the glass off your rose and place it in the middle of your dinning table.

Types Of Looms

Types Of Looms

The earliest looms were vertical shaft, with the heddles fixed in place in the shaft. The warp threads pass alternately through a heddle and through a space between the heddles, so that raising the shaft will raise half the threads (those passing through the heddles), and lowering the shaft will lower the same threads the threads passing through the spaces between the heddles remain in place.
Dobby Loom

A Dobby Loom is a type of floor loom that controls the warp threads using a device called a dobby. Dobby is short for “draw boy” which refers to the weaver’s helpers who used to control the warp thread by pulling on draw threads.

A dobby loom is an alternative to a treadle loom. Each of them is a floor loom in which every warp thread on the loom is attached to a single shaft using a device called a heddle. A shaft is sometimes known as a harness, but this terminology is becoming obsolete among active weavers. Each shaft controls a set of threads. Raising or lowering several shafts at the same time gives a huge variety of possible sheds through which the shuttle containing the weft thread can be thrown.

A manual dobby uses a chain of bars or lags each of which has pegs inserted to select the shafts to be moved. A computer assisted dobby loom uses a set of solenoids or other electronic devices to select the shafts. Activation of these solenoids is under the control of computer program. In either case the selected shafts are raised or lowered by either leg power on a dobby pedal or electric or other power sources.

On a treadle loom, each foot-operated treadle is connected by a linkage called a tie-up to one or more shafts. More than one treadle can operate a single shaft. The tie-up consists of cords or similar mechanical linkages tying the treadles to the lams that actual lift or lower the shaft.

On treadle operated looms, the number of sheds is limited by the number of treadles available. An eight shaft loom can create 254 different sheds. There are actually 256 possibilities which is 2 to the eight power, but having all threads up or all threads down isn’t very useful. However, most eight shaft floor looms have only ten to twelve treadles due to space limitations. This limits the weaver to ten to twelve distinct sheds. It is possible to use both feet to get more sheds., but that is rarely done in practice. It is even possible to change tie-ups in the middle of weaving a cloth but this is a tedious and error prone process so this too is rarely done.

With a dobby loom, all 254 possibilities are available at any time. This vastly increases the number of cloth designs available to the weaver. The advantage of a dobby loom becomes even more pronounced on looms with 12 shafts (4094 possible sheds), 16 shafts (65,534 possible sheds), or more. It reaches its peak on a Jacquard loom in which each thread is individually controlled.

Another advantage to a dobby loom is the ability to handle much longer sequences in the pattern. A weaver working on a treadled loom must remember the entire sequence of treadlings that make up the pattern, and must keep track of where they are in the sequence at all times. Getting lost or making a mistake can ruin the cloth being woven. On a manual dobby the sequence that makes up the pattern is represented by the chain of dobby bars. The length of the sequence is limited by the length of the dobby chain. This can easily be several hundred dobby bars, although an average dobby chain will have approximately fifty bars.

A computer controlled dobby loom (Computer-Dobby) takes this one step further by replacing the mechanical dobby chain with computer controlled shaft selection. In addition to being able to handle sequences that are virtually unlimited, the construction of the shaft sequences is done on the computer screen rather than by building a mechanical dobby chain. This allows the weaver to load and switch weave drafts in seconds without even getting up from the loom. In addition, the design process performed on the computer provides the weaver with a more intuitive way to design fabricas seeing it on the computer screen is easier than trying to visualize it by looking at the dobby chain.

Dobby looms expand a weavers capabilities and remove some of the tedious work involved in designing and producing fabric. Many newer cloth design techniques such as network drafting can only reach their full potential on a dobby loom.
Jacquard Loom

The Jacquard Loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask, and matelasse. The loom is controlled by punchcards with punched holes, each row of which corresponds to one row of the design. Multiple rows of holes are punched on each card and the many cards that compose the design of the textile are strung together in order. It is based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon (1725), Jean Falcon (1728) and Jacques Vaucanson (1740)
Principles of Operation

Each hole in the card corresponds to a “Bolus” hook, which can either be up or down. The hook raises or lowers the harness, which carries and guides the warp thread so that the weft will either lie above or below it. The sequence of raised and lowered threads is what creates the pattern. Each hook can be connected via the harness to a number of threads, allowing more than one repeat of a pattern. A loom with a 400 hook head might have four threads connected to each hook, resulting in a fabric that is 1600 warp ends wide with four repeats of the weave going across.

The term “Jacquard loom” is a misnomer. It is the “Jacquard head” that adapts to a great many dobby looms such as the “Dornier” brand that allow the weaving machine to then create the intricate patterns often seen in Jacquard weaving.

Jacquard looms, whilst relatively common in the textile industry, are not as ubiquitous as dobby looms which are usually faster and much cheaper to operate. However unlike jacquard looms they are not capable of producing so many different weaves from one warp. Modern jacquard looms are controlled by computers in place of the original punched cards, and can have thousands of hooks.

The threading of a Jacquard loom is so labor intensive that many looms are threaded only once. Subsequent warps are then tied in to the existing warp with the help of a knotting robot which ties each new thread on individually. Even for a small loom with only a few thousand warp ends the process of re-threading can take days.
Importance to Computing

The Jacquard loom was the first machine to use punch cards to control a sequence of operations. Although it did no computation based on them, it is considered an important step in the history of computing hardware. The ability to change the pattern of the loom’s weave by simply changing cards was an important conceptual precursor to the development of computer programming. Specifically, Charles Babbage planned to use cards to store programs in his Analytical engine.

Jacquard Weaving

Jacquard weaving makes possible in almost any loom the programmed raising of each warp thread independently of the others. This brings much greater versatility to the weaving process, and offers the highest level of warp yarn control. This mechanism is probably one of the most important weaving inventions as Jacquard shedding made possible the automatic production of unlimited varieties of pattern weaving.

In former times, the heddles with warp ends to be pulled up were manually selected by a second operator, apart from the weaver. This was known as a drawloom. It was slow and labour intensive, with practical limitations on the complexity of the pattern.

The Jacquard process and the necessary loom attachment are named after their inventor, Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752 – 1834). He recognized that although weaving was intricate, it was repetitive, and saw that a mechanism could be developed for the production of sophisticated patterns just as it had been done for the production of simple patterns. (Similar ideas were pursued by others before 1750, but Jacquard perfected and popularized the concept by about 1803.)

Jacquard’s invention had a deep influence on Charles Babbage. In that respect, he is viewed by some authors as a precursor of modern computing science
Mechanical Jacquard Looms

Originally the Jacquard machines were mechanical, and the fabric design was punched in pattern cards which were joined together to form a continuous chain. The Jacquards often were small and only independently controlled a relatively few warp ends. This required a number of repeats across the loom width. Larger capacity machines, or the use of multiple machines, allowed greater control, with fewer repeats, and hence larger designs to be woven across the loom width.

A factory must choose looms and shedding mechanisms to suit its commercial requirements. As a rule the more warp control required the greater the expense. So it would not be economical to purchase Jacquard machines if one could make do with a dobby mechanism. As well as the capital expense, the Jacquard machines are also more costly to maintain, as they are complex and require higher skilled personnel; also an expensive design system will be required to prepare the designs for the loom, and possibly also a card-cutting machine. Weaving will be more costly as Jacquard mechanisms are more liable to produce faults than dobby or cam shedding. The looms will not run as fast, and down time will increase as it takes time to change the continuous chain of cards when a design changes. Therefore with mechanical Jacquards it is best to weave larger batch sizes.
Electronic Jacquard

Looms Bonas Machine Company Ltd. launched the first electronic Jacquard at ITMA, Milan in 1983 . Although the machines were initially small, modern technology has allowed Jacquard machine capacity to increase significantly, and single end warp control can extend to more than 10,000 warp ends. This avoids the need for repeats and symmetrical designs and allows almost infinite versatility. The computer-controlled machines significantly reduce the down time associated with changing punched paper designs, thus allowing smaller batch sizes. However, electronic Jacquards are costly and may not be required in a factory weaving large batch sizes, and smaller designs. The larger machines allowing single end warp control are very expensive, and can only be justified where great versatility is required, or very specialized design requirements need to be met. For example, they are an ideal tool to increase the ability and stretch the versatility of the niche linen Jacquard weavers who remain active in Europe and the West, while most of the large batch commodity weaving has moved to low cost areas.

Linen products associated with Jacquard weaving are linen damask napery, Jacquard apparel fabrics and damask bed linen.

Jacquard weaving of course uses all sorts of fibers and blends of fibers, and it is used in the production of fabrics for many end uses. Research is under way to develop layered and shaped items as reinforcing components for structures made from composite materials.

The term “Jacquard” is not specific or limited to any particular loom, but rather refers to the added control mechanism that automates the patterning.
Lancashire Loom

The Lancashire Loom was a semi automatic power loom invented by James Bullough and William Kenworthy in 1842. Although it is self-acting, it has to be stopped to recharge empty shuttles.It was the mainstay of the Lancashire cotton industry for a century.

The principal advantage of the Lancashire loom was that it was semi automatic, when a warp thread broke the weaver was notified. When the shuttle ran out of thread, the machine stopped. An operative thus could work 4 or more looms whereas previously they could only a single loom. Indeed the term A Four Loom Weaver was used to describe the operatives. Labour cost was quartered. In some mills an operative would operate 6 or even 8 looms. . Though this was governed by the thread being used. By 1900, the loom was challenged by the Northrop Loom which was fully automatic and could be worked in larger numbers. The Northrop was suitable for coarse thread but for fine cotton, the Lancashire loom was still prefered. By 1914, Northop looms made up 40% of looms in American mills but in the United Kingdom, labour costs were not as significant and they only supplied 2% of the British market.
Northrop Loom

Northrop had worked as a mechanic and foreman, he invented spooler guide while employed by Draper. He unsuccessfully tried to be a chicken farmer. And it was there he worked on his shuttle-charger for Mr Otis Draper,who saw a model of the device on March 5, 1889. Draper was also developing the Rhoades shuttle-charger. Northrop was given a loom to test his idea.

By May 20 he had concluded that his first idea was not practical, and had thought of another idea, On July 5, the completed loom was running, and as it seemed to have more advantages than the Rhoades loom. The Northrop device was given a mill trial in October 1889 at the Seaconnett Mills in Fall River. More looms were constructed. Meanwhile he invented a self-threading shuttle and shuttle spring jaws to hold a bobbin by means of rings on the butt. This paved the way to his filling-changing battery of 1891, the basic feature of the Northrop loom. Other members of the Draper organization had developed a workable warp stop motion which was also included. The first Northrop looms were marketed in 1894.

The principal advantage of the Northrop loom was that it was fully automatic; when a warp thread broke the loom stopped until it was fixed. When the shuttle ran out of thread, Northrop’s mechanism, ejected the depleted pirn, and loaded a new full one without stopping. An operative thus could work 16 or more looms whereas previously they could only operate 8. Thus the labour cost was halved. Mill owners had to decide whether the labour saving was worth the capital investment in a new loom. By 1900, Draper had sold over 60,000 Northrop looms, They were shipping 1500 a month, were employing 2500 men and enlarging their works to increase that output. In all 700,000 looms were sold.

By 1914, Northop looms made up 40% of American looms. However in the United Kingdom, labour costs were not as significant and they only supplied 2% of the British market. Northrops were especially suitable for coarse cottons, but it was said not particular suitable for fines, thus the financial advantage in their introduction into Lancashire was not as great as it had been in the States. Henry Philip Greg imported some of the first Northrops into Britain in 1902, for his Albert Mill in Reddish, and encouraged his brother Robert Alexander Greg to introduce Northrops into Quarry Bank Mill in 1909. The output increased from 2.31 lbs/manhour in 1900, to 2.94 lbs/manhour in 1914. Labour costs decreased from 0.9d per pound to 0.3d per lb.
Projectile Loom(Gripper Shuttle Loom)

The multi gripper projectile weaving machine,introduced by sulzer brothers in 1953,was the first system to begin shuttle weaving.The company and its successors have remained the sole suppliers of projectile weaving machinery.

Pick lengths of weft yarn are drawn from large cones by a weft accumulator.The free end is held in the jaws of a weft carrier gripper(projectile),88mm long weighing 40kg and the accumulated yarn is threaded to a sophisticated tensioning and braking system.The Projectile is lifted to the picking position and is propelled across the warp shed by a torsion bar system.At the other side of the loom,the projectile is recieved,the yarn is released and the projectile is ejected for eventual return to the picking side.The weft is cut at the picking side and is held at both sides by a selvedge grippers during beat up and shed change.During the next machine cycle,tucking needles draw the outer ends of weft yarn into fabric to form selvedges.Usually 10-12 projectiles are associated with a single-width loom.

picking rates are typically 380-420ppm for worsted yarns and 250-300 ppm for woolen yarns.
It offers the following advantages

Low power consuption

Reduced waste of filling material due to unique clean ,tucked-in selvedges

Quick warp and style change

Mechanical and operatonal reliability and ease of use

Low spare parts requirement and easy maintaince

Long machine life

Rapier Loom

Rapier Weaving is offered by many loom manufacturers and consequently is in widespread use in the worsted and woolen industry.

In this type of weaving a flexible or rigid solid element called rapier, is used to insert the filling yarn and carries it through thr shed .after reaching the destination, the rapier head returns empty to pick up the next filling yarn,which completes a cycle.a rapier performs a reciprocating motion.
Single Rapier Machines

A single,rigid rapier is used in these machines.the rigid rapier is a metal or composite bar usually with a circular cross section.the rapier enters the shed from one side and pases it across the weaving machine while retracting .therefore a single rapier carries the yarn in one way only and half of the rapier movement is wasted.also there is no yarn transfer since there is only one rapier.the single rapiers length is equal to the width of the weaving machine; this requires relatively high mass and rigidity of the rapier head.for these reasons,single rapier machines are not popular.however since there is no yarn transfer to rapier tp rapier,they are suitable for filling yarns that are difficult control.

Double Rapier Machines

Two rapiers are used in these machines.one rapier ,called the giver takes the filling yarn from the accumulator on one side of the weaving machine, brings it to the center of the machine and transfers it to the decond rapier which is called taker.the taker retracts and brings the filling yarn to the other side.similar to the single rapier machines,only half of the rapier movements is used for filling insertion.

Rapier machines are known for their reliability and performance.since 1972,the rapier weaving machine has evolved into successfull ,versatile and flexible weaving machine.

A very wide range of fabrics with 20 g/m2 to heavy fabrics with around 850 gm2 rapier machines are widely used for household textiles and industrial fabrics.Designed for universal use,the rapier weaving machine can weave not only the classic wool,cotton and manmade fibers,but also the most technicaly demanding filament yarns,finest silk and fancy yarns.
Air Jet Loom

Air jet loom, as one of the shuttleless looms, transports a yarn into warps using viscosity and kinetic energy of an air jet. Performance of this picking system depends on the ability of instantaneous inhalation/exhaust, configuration of nozzle, operation characteristics of a check valve, etc.

Air-jet weaving is an advanced weaving method with high efficiency and productivity

In air-jet looms, the weft is introduced into the shed opening by air flow.

The energy resulting from air pressure is converted into kinetic energy in the nozzle.

The air leaving from the nozzle transfers its pulse to stationary air and slows down.

To this end, in order to achieve a larger rib width, a confuser is developed, which maintains air velocity in the shooting line.

The confuser drop wires are profiles narrowing in the direction of shoot, and they are of nearly circular cross section open at the top.

These drop wires are fitted one behind the other as densely as possible. Therefore, they prevent in the shooting line the dispersion of air jet generated by the nozzle.

Water Jet Loom

A water jet is more coherant than an air jet.it does not break up easily, and the propulsive zone is elongated,making it much more effective.it is effective in terms of energy requirements ,it is quite and when the jet does break up, it goes into droplets which create very little turbulence to disturb the filling.

The droplets spread in such a way as to wet much of the warp; thus a sized warp containing a water soluble adhesive can be adversely affected.because of this ,water jet weaving is usually restricted to filament yarn,but there is some hope that it might become economically feasible to weave staple yarns on these looms.

Two main reasons for the efficiency of the water-jet loom are that there are no varying lateral forces to cause the filling to contract and the moving element is more massive because it is wet.thus there is less chance of fault due to contact with the warp.

The range of jet, and thus the width of the loom ,depends on the water pressure and the diameter odf the jet.water is virtually incompressible and a simple jerk pump can be used to give adequate pressure with difficulty.

A firmans hose has a tremendous range but the jet is several cm in diameter;large volumes of water and considerable pumping powers have to be used .in weaving , a much more modest jet is used; in fact , it is possible to reduce the diameter of the jet to some 0.1 cm, and the amount of water used per pick is commonly less than 2c.c. even with these small jets , it is possible to weave at upto 2 meters in width with small power consuptions.it is also possible to weave at upto 1000 picks/min on narrower looms .several forms of water-jet loom have now become established.
Circular Loom

The circular weaving machine proposed by the invention is designed for the manufacture of tubular fabrics and has an annular frame with an upper ring plate and a lower ring plate Vertically moving laces are fitted to direct the warp ends and are mounted at constant intervals round at least one circular trackway . The two ring plates have bores in them for mounting and directing the laces . The lower ends of the laces have follower rollers which operate in conjunction with a cam plate.

Alternative to Diamond, Moissanite, White Sapphire

Alternative to Diamond


Moissanite reflects light splendidly. When white light passes through an inclined surface, it splits into rainbow colors; this dispersion is called a gem’s fire. Moissanite has twice the dispersion of diamonds, and of the mineral-based gemstones, only a diamond is harder than moissanite. Discovered in Arizona in 1893, moissanite has since been found in only small amounts, usually in or near a meteor crater. It is difficult to mine, so most moissanite used for jewelry is lab-grown

White Sapphire

White sapphire is the colorless, pure form of the corundum mineral; it lacks the metal oxides that create colorful sapphires. Look for white sapphire as an accent to colored sapphires in jewelry. For example, a pretty ring might display a large yellow, pink or blue sapphire surrounded by white sapphires. You’ll also find it in solitaire necklaces, stud earrings and some wedding rings as an affordable alternative to diamonds.

White Topaz

Most white topaz jewelry is made of sterling silver and features the gem mixed with other semiprecious gemstones, such as amethyst, blue or pink topaz, garnet and citrine. A mixture of white topaz and sterling silver or white gold makes sleek, sophisticated bracelets, pendants and rings.

Cubic Zirconia

cubic zirconia is a diamond simulant, meaning it is created to resemble diamonds and is not a natural gemstone. Cubic zirconia, commonly known as CZ, is zirconium oxide in cubic form. Clear CZ stones look like flawless diamonds and are the most popular diamond alternatives for fashion jewelry. Fine jewelry can also contain cubic zirconias. Many couples choose CZ engagement rings because they are beautiful, reasonably priced and, as a man-made gemstone, environmentally friendly.

Slip Dress Overview and How it is Made

Slip Dress

A slip dress is a dress for street wear styled like a slip, fitting close to the body and having narrow shoulder straps. In various other languages, such as Dutch, French, German and Greek, slip dress refers to different types of undergarment, tightly fitting, both male and female undershorts, such as briefs and thongs.

Many Slip Dress have floral lace at the hem and/or the vents or side slits. Some of the older Slip Dress have decorations, such as a butterfly or flowers sewn into the fabric of the slip, and a pillowtab was also added to the waistband. The vast majority of Slip Dress are made of 100% nylon, while others are made from polyester, rayon, acetate, silk or in some cases cotton. Still, there are others made of blends, and the label of the garment might read 40% nylon, 35% rayon, 25% polyester. Nylon Slip Dress are often shiny in appearance, and are very smooth to the touch, while polyester types can even be more shiny with a real slippery feel, especially charmeuse or satin types. Although charmeuse Slip Dress types have very attractive eye appeal, they are not as durable as nylon slips, and often tear very easily, especially when wet.

Slip Dress made in the 1940s were mainly made of 100% rayon due to the war effort. In the late 1940s, some nylon types began to appear on the market, and the vast majority are made in the 1950s were nylon. In the 1960s, They were offered in a much more variety of colors, including multicolored slips. Slip Dress with a floral print design were also made available. Some of the most well known brand names of the past are: Lorraine, Dior, Velrose, Mel-Lin, Shadowline, Wonder Maid, Warner’s, Kayser, Maidenform and Van Raalte. There are well established manufacturers still in operation today such as Vanity Fair and Vassarette.

How To Import, Importing and Import Procedure

How To Import

How To Import – The term import is derived from the conceptual meaning as to bring in the goods and services into the port of a country. The buyer of such goods and services is referred to an importer who is based in the country of import whereas the overseas based seller is referred to as an exporter.Thus an import is any good (e.g. a commodity) or service brought in from one country to another country in a legitimate fashion, typically for use in trade. It is a good that is brought in from another country for sale.Import goods or services are provided to domestic consumers by foreign producers. An import in the receiving country is an export to the sending country.

How To Import – Imports, along with exports, form the basis of international trade. Import of goods normally requires involvement of the customs authorities in both the country of import and the country of export and are often subject to import quotas, tariffs and trade agreements. When the “imports” are the set of goods and services imported, Imports also means the economic value of all goods and services that are imported. The macroeconomic variable I usually stands for the value of these imports over a given period of time, usually one year.

How To Import – Types of import

There are two basic types of import:

  • Industrial and consumer goods
  • Intermediate goods and services

How To Import – Companies import goods and services to supply to the domestic market at a cheaper price and better quality than competing goods manufactured in the domestic market. Companies import products that are not available in the local market.

How To Import – Types of Importers

  • Looking for any product around the world to import and sell.
  • Looking for foreign sourcing to get their products at the cheapest price.
  • Using foreign sourcing as part of their global supply chain.

How To Import – Direct Import

Direct-import refers to a type of business importation involving a major retailer (e.g. Wal-Mart) and an overseas manufacturer. A retailer typically purchases products designed by local companies that can be manufactured overseas.

How To Import – Indirect Import

In a direct-import program, the retailer bypasses the local supplier (colloquial middle-man) and buys the final product directly from the manufacturer, possibly saving in added costs. This type of business is fairly recent and follows the trends of the global economy.

How to Clean Gold Jewelry Information

How to Clean Gold

How to Clean Gold Jewelry with Soap and Water

Dish soap and warm water actually works pretty well for cleaning your gold jewelry. Fill up a bowl with some soapy solution and let your jewelry soak for 15 minutes. Then use a soft bristled toothbrush and gently brush your jewelry clean. Use light pressure otherwise your jewelry could be scratched. Rinse your jewelry and then dry it.

How to Clean Gold Jewelry with Toothpaste

Use some toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush to scrub away dirt and oil. You can also use toothpaste on a soft cloth in a similar fashion. Scrub gently and dont use this method too often since toothpaste does have mild abrasive that can slightly dull a mirror smooth finish.

How to Clean Gold Jewelry with Boiling Water

As long as you completely submerge your jewelry in boiling water, no harm will come to it. This is a good method for cleaning grease, oil, and wax. Just take care when removing your jewelry from the boiling water, try not to scratch the jewelry or burn yourself.

How to Clean Gold Jewelry with Ammonia

Only use this method every so often. It is very effective, but it can cause your gold jewelry to become damaged if done too often. Mix a bowl of solution (1 part ammonia to 6 parts water). Soak your gold
jewelry for less than 1 minute. Rinse with water and dry.

How to Clean Gold Jewelry with Alcohol

Alcohol works great for cleaning gold jewelry. The only catch to this method is that if you have gemstones held in place with glue, the alcohol will eat the glue away so dont use alcohol to clean your jewelry if this is the case.

Industrial Fabrics and Industrial Fabric Uses

Industrial Fabrics

Industrial fabrics are fabrics which are used for non-apparel and non-decorative uses. It covers a wide variety of widths, weights and construction particularly made to meet a specific application. It is strong and woven textile with a high performance.

Industrial fabrics are usually made from man-made fibers like fiberglass, carbon, and aramid fibers. Fiberglass made industrial fabric utilized in those kinds of applications where high heat is present and there is a need for high strength and dimensional stability fabric. Industrial fabrics are woven in various thicknesses and constructions in basic weave, namely plain, leno, satin and basket.

Classes of Industrial Fabrics

  • Fabrics employed in industrial processes. A good example of Industrial fabrics is fabric used for filtration, polishing and absorption.
  • Fabrics combined with some other materials to form a new type of material. These are like rubberized fabric for hose, belting, tires, timing gears, bearings, and electrical parts.
  • Fabrics impregnated with adhesives and dielectric compounds.
  • Fabrics which are incorporated directly in a finished product like tarps, tents, awnings and specialty belts for airplanes, conveyers and agricultural machinery.

Industrial fabrics Characteristics

  • It is durable.
  • It is soft.
  • It is environmentally friendly.
  • It is highly UV protected.
  • It is acid and alkali resistant.
  • It is water repellent.
  • It is flame retardant.
  • It is weaveset for added stiffness.


Industrial fabrics are primarily used for insulation, marine and recreational products, advanced composites, electronics, filtration, commercial, construction and protective garments.

Frogspawn Coral Growth, Frog Spawn Coral Feeding

Frogspawn Coral

Frogspawn Coral is a large polyp stony coral often referred to as the Wall, Octopus, Grape, or Honey Coral. Its polyps remain visible throughout both the day and night, resembling a mass of fish eggs or frog eggs, hence one of its common names Frogspawn. Its coloration is green or brown to tan in color. With its appearance and coloration it would make a nice addition to any reef aquarium.

During the evenings, Frogspawn Coral sweeper tentacles can extend up to six inches beyond its base into the reef aquarium surroundings. Frogspawn Coral will sting other neighboring corals in the reef aquarium, therefore, it is best to leave plenty of room between itself and other types of corals. Frogspawn Coral is moderately difficult to maintain, but it is a popular coral that will thrive under the proper conditions. It will need to have moderate to heavy lighting combined with moderate water movement within the aquarium. For continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water.

The symbiotic algae zooxanthellae hosted within its body provides the majority of its nutritional requirements from photosynthesis. It will also benefit from additional food in the form of micro-plankton or brine shrimp.

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