Hair Falling out after Bleaching, Causes, Hair Care Tips

Hair Falling Out after Bleaching | Bleached Hair Falling Out

Hair Falling Out after Bleaching or Bleached Hair Falling Out is a burning problem of today’s youngsters which is increasing in an alarming rate. Bleaching the hair has become a fashion. People are crazy about to give their hair a new look with various colors. However the majority of them are not aware of the aftereffects of those colors. Most of the hair bleaches available in the market are made with strong chemicals and thus harmful to the scalp and hair. Thus always go for the branded products though they are a little bit costlier. Also you have to follow a regular hair care regime to keep your hair problem free.
Causes of Hair falling Out

Hair bleach like other bleaches work on your hair. All hair bleaches are the oxidizing agents. Due to these bleaches melanin of your hair becomes oxidized and colorless. Instead of melanin some other compounds of your hair are also oxidized due to a chemical reaction. In this reaction, Thiol groups in your hair are damaged. Thiol groups are mostly damaged by the peroxides and most of the hair bleaches contain hydrogen peroxide. Often a bleached hair becomes dry and brittle. Thus a bleached care needs extra care and protection.

Sometimes you use cheap hair bleaches which are very much harmful for your hair. Many of us also don’t know the actual bleaching procedure which is another reason of hair fall. Thus to know the actual procedure is very important to you. If you want to go to a beauty parlor for bleaching your hair then always choose a reputed salon as they might know the actual procedure and use reputed products.
Best Hair Bleache

If you are desperate to go for a hair bleach then must go for a reputed branded product. They will be less harmful to you. Also knowing the proper usage is very important. A number of international hair bleaches are available with the user guide in the market and you can pick up any of them. Some of the popular hair bleaches are as follows:
L’Oreal Quick Blue Bleach
Roux Violites Dust-free Violet based Bleach
Clairol Powder Bleach
Tips to Prevent Hair Fall | Hair Bleaching Tips

If you want to bleach your hair at home you have to maintain certain things. When going for the bleaching always follow the following suggestions to prevent hair loss and other harms:

Always go for the reputed brands.
Read the user guide carefully.
Don’t leave the bleach on your hair for a long time or apply in an excessive quantity.
An allergy test must be done before applying the product.
If you have any irritations or other skin or hair problem, consult your doctor.
Hair Care after Bleaching

A Regular hair care is need after bleaching your hair. As bleached hair faces many problems including hair fall and thus you must take care of your hair properly. Always use a mild herbal shampoo for your hair. Shampooing three days a week is essential for your hair. Don’t forget to apply a conditioner after shampooing your hair. Massaging with hot olive or coconut oil is also must for your hair.

Leather Crusting, Splitting, Shaving, Retanning, Fatliquoring, Stripping

Leather Crusting | Crusting

Leather Crusting is when the hide/skin is thinned, retanned and lubricated. Often a coloring operation is included in the crusting sub-process. The chemicals added during crusting have to be fixed in place. The culmination of the crusting sub-process is the drying and softening operations. Crusting may include the following operations:

Wetting back

Semi-processed leather is rehydrated.

Sammying

45-55%(m/m) water is squeezed out the leather.

Leather Splitting

The leather is split into one or more horizontal layers.

Leather Shaving

The leather is thinned using a machine which cuts leather fibres off.

Neutralisation

The pH of the leather is adjusted to a value between 4.5 and 6.5.

Leather retanning

Additional tanning agents are added to impart properties.

Leather dyeing

The leather is coloured.

Fatliquoring

Fats/oils and waxes are fixed to the leather fibres.

Filling

Heavy/dense chemicals that make the leather harder and heavier are added.

Stuffing

Fats/oils and waxes are added between the fibres.

Leather Stripping

Superficially fixed tannins are removed.

Leather whitening

The colour of the leather is lightened.

Leather fixation

All unbound chemicals are chemically bonded/trapped or removed from the leather

Leather setting

Area, grain flatness are imparted and excess water removed.

Leather drying

The leather is dried to various moisture levels (commonly 14-25%).

Leather conditioning

Water is added to the leather to a level of 18-28%.

Leather softening

Physical softening of the leather by separating the leather fibres.

Leather buffing

Abrasion of the surfaces of the leather to reduce nap or grain defects.

Synthetic Fibers Info and Synthetic Fiber Types

Synthetic Fibers

Synthetic Fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve upon naturally occurring animal and plant fibers. In general, they are created by forcing, usually through extrusion, fiber forming materials through holes (called spinnerets) into the air, forming a thread. Before Synthetic Fibers were developed, artificially manufactured fibers were made from cellulose, which comes from plants. These fibers are called cellulose fibers.

Rayon and acetate are both artificial fibers, but not truly Synthetic Fibers, being made from wood. Although these artificial fibers were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century, successful modern manufacture began much later. Nylon, the first Synthetic Fibers, made its debut in the United States as a replacement for silk, just in time for World War II rationing. Its novel use as a material for women’s stockings overshadowed more practical uses, such as a replacement for the silk in parachutes and other military uses.

Common Synthetic Fibers include

  • Rayon (1910) (artificial, not synthetic)
  • Acetate (1924) (artificial, not synthetic)
  • Nylon (1939)
  • Modacrylic (1949)
  • Olefin (1949)
  • Acrylic (1950)
  • Polyester (1953)
  • Carbon fiber (1968)

Specialty Synthetic Fibers include

  • Vinyon (1939)
  • Saran (1941)
  • Spandex (1959)
  • Vinalon (1939)
  • Aramids (1961) – known as Nomex, Kevlar and Twaron
  • Modal (1960′s)
  • Dyneema/Spectra (1979)
  • PBI (Polybenzimidazole fiber) (1983)

Regardless of the design or manufacturing process, the basic raw material for making Synthetic Fibers is cellulose. The major sources for natural cellulose are wood pulp-usually from pine, spruce, or hemlock trees.

To make Synthetic Fibers, sheets of purified cellulose are steeped in caustic soda, dried, shredded into crumbs, and then aged in metal containers for 2 to 3 days. The temperature and humidity in the metal containers are carefully controlled. After ageing, the crumbs are combined and churned with liquid carbon disulfide, which turns the mix into orange-colored crumbs known as sodium cellulose xanthate. The cellulose xanthate is bathed in caustic soda, resulting in a viscose solution that looks and feels much like honey.cotton linters. Cotton linters are residue fibers which cling to cotton seed after the ginning process.

Strictly defined, Synthetic Fibers are manufactured fibers composed of regenerated cellulose. The legal definition also includes manufactured fibers in which substitutes have not replaced more than 15 percent of the hydrogens.

While the basic manufacturing process for all Synthetic Fibers is similar, this fabric can be engineered to perform a wide range of functions. Various factors in the manufacturing process can be altered to produce an array of designs. Differences in the raw material, the processing chemicals, fiber diameter, post treatments and blend ratios can be manipulated to produce a fiber that is customized for a specific application.

Regular or viscose Synthetic Fibers are most prevalent, versatile and successful type of Synthetic Fibers. It can be blended with man-made or natural fibers and made into fabrics of varying weight and texture. It is also highly absorbent, economical and comfortable to wear.

Beauty Schools in Denmark

Beauty Schools in Denmark

Platinum Shear School of Cosmetology

Platinum Shears School Of Cosmetology is a private, co-educational institution of higher learning that trains men and women for challenging and rewarding careers in the field of Cosmetology Arts and Sciences.

1520 Russell St, Orangeburg, SC 29115.

website:Platinum Shear School of Cosmetology

Københavns Frisør- og Kosmetologskole

Hairstyling & hair care, skin care, pedicure, manicure, make-up.

Københavns FrisørskoleHovedkontor

Vesterbrogade 26 DK‐1620

København V Københavns Frisørskole

Vesterbrogade 15, 3 sal DK‐1620

København V

website:http://www.kbhfrisoerskole.dk/

Monsoon Hair & Make-Up Academy

Hair styling and make-up. Location: Copenhagen.

website:http://www.monsoon.dk/

Felted Wool and How to Felt Wool

Felted Wool

Felted Wool is formed when Wool is subjected to moisture, heat, and pressure.

Hot soapy water makes the wool slippery, and causes tiny scales on the fiber to open up. The scales prevent the fibers from backing up again after they slide across each other. with agitation, the fibers get hopelessly tangled together. When cooled and dried, the scales close and lock the wool into the tough, durable material call Felted Wool.

Felted Wool making Process

Felted Wool making – Lay out a half-ounce of washed and carded wool. Divide into three equal portions. Spread out the first portion so that the wool evenly covers the bottom of the cake pan, with all of the fibers running in the same direction. Place the second layer on top of the first with the layers at right angles to the layer beneath. Repeat with the third layer, arranging the fibers cross-ways to the layer below.

Felted Wool making – Squirt a small amount of liquid detergent over the top layer of wool. Then gently pour about a half cup of HOT water over the wool.

Felted Wool making – Press straight onto the wool pile so that the wool compresses into a mass on the bottom of the pan. Add more hot water until all of the wool is wet. Work around the edges, pressing down until all of the wool is matted down.

Felted Wool making – Hold the pan in one hand, while you gently massage the edge of the wool with the fingertips of the other hand. Use your palm to gently agitate the center. Slowly rotate the pan as you work. Keep rolling the edge of the wool slightly inwards to give it a smooth, finished shape. The soap will squish up between your fingers and the wool will matt together. After about 5 minutes the wool will begin to firm up, and you can begin to work with a more vigorous circular motion.

Felted Wool making – After about 10 minutes, the felt will hold together well enough to turn it over. Tip the pan and gently flop the wool out into your hand and place it upside down in the pan. Add more soap or hot water if necessary, and continue working the wool as before.

Felted Wool making – Run warm water into the pan and pour off the soapy water. Then run cold water over the wool and press the water out of it. It should be round, about an eighth of an inch thick, and a little smaller than the pan. It should be felt! If you continue working it, it will grow thicker and smaller. Its not that you are losing wool, its that you are losing air spaces.

Felted Wool making – If you want the Felted Wool to be strong, continue working the felt by running more hot water over it, and rolling and squeezing it in your hands. The more you do this, the fuller (thicker and stronger) it becomes.

Felted Wool making – When you’re finished Felted Wool process you may want to use an iron (set at wool) to speed up the drying and flatten it out nicely.

Stretchy Fabric, Material and Stretchy Fabrics

Stretchy Fabric

Stretchy Fabric is a fabric referring to the normal fabric, which stretches in all four directions. Simplifying the construction of clothing Stretchy Fabric is commonly used in swimsuits. They were originally being used in the mid 1980s by large number of fashion designers. Entering mainstream market in the early 1990, they were widely used in sports wear.

Sometime Stretchy Fabric is also termed as Stretch woven fabric when it is blended with stable fiber of cotton, wool or synthetic. When it comes to talk about stretching, then Stretchy Fabric is very easy to Stretch in one or both directions presenting the traditional look and lot of comfort. Stretchy Fabric have better shape retention and are wrinkle resistance because of which they are more comfortable to wear.

Stretchy Fabric are either 2-way stretch or 4-way stretch. 2-way fabrics stretch in one direction, usually from selvedge to selvedge. 4-way stretch fabrics, such as spandex, stretches in both directions, crosswise and lengthwise.

They evolved from the scientific effort to make fibers using neoprene. From this research, in 1958 commercial stretch fabrics such as spandex or elastane were brought to the market.

Stretchy Fabric simplify the construction of clothing. First used in swimsuits and women’s bras, fashion designers began using them as early as the mid-1980s. They entered the mainstream market in the early 1990s, and are widely used in sports clothing.

On a larger scale, the materials have also been adapted to many artistic and decorative purposes. They create contemporary looking design elements that have many uses in corporate theatre and event production.

Types of Stretchy Fabric

  • Cotton
  • Twill
  • Satin
  • Knit
  • Poplin
  • Lycra

Blue Quartz Meaning and Healing Properties

Blue Quartz

Blue Quartz is simply macrocrystalline quartz that is blue. It gets it blue coloring from minute particles of magnesioriebeckite or crocidolite. Like all blue stones, it is associated with the throat chakra.

Using blue quartz also helps to improve one’s communication skills, including not only communication with others, but also communication from the higher self into the 3D self. Physically, it is said to enhance the immune system and encourage proper function of the Lungs, Heart, Throat, and Eyes.

It is a soothing and calming stone, bringing a relaxing, peaceful vibe to any situation. Many use Blue Quartz to cleanse the aura and to clear away even the toughest energy blockages. By focusing in on the Third-Eye Chakra, it can help one to connect to higher realms and work with ascended beings, and brings great clarity to psychic visions and enhances dream work.

Emotionally, blue quartz greatly reduces problems with scattered mind and disorganization, and brings mental clarity. It also helps one to see and accept reality, and react to it intelligently in one’s behalf. It can lift depression and replace it with peace and happiness. It also can help reduce stubbornness, particularly stubbornness that is ultimately bad for one. It helps reduce emotional tension.

Bead Weaving Patterns, Techniques, Tutorials

Bead Weaving

When weaving on a loom, the beads are locked in between the warp threads by the weft threads. The most common bead weaving technique requires two passes of the weft thread. First, an entire row of beads is strung on the weft thread. Then the beads are pressed in between the warp threads. The needle is passed back through the beads above the warp threads to lock the beads into place. Heddle looms were popular near the beginning of the 20th century for Bead Weaving. They allowed weaving of beads by raising every other thread and inserting strung beads in the shed, the space between the lowered and raised threads. There are still a few Heddle Bead Looms being manufactured today. The most difficult part of loomwork is finishing off the warp threads.

Although loomed pieces are typically rectangular, it is possible to increase and decrease to produce angular or curvy shapes. Fringe can also be added during weaving or before the piece is removed from the loom.

Bead Weaving looms vary in size and are typically made of wood or metal. Usually, a comb or spring is used to hold the warp threads a bead-width apart. Some Bead Weaving looms have roller bars that allow the weaver to produce pieces that are longer than the loom.

Off-loom bead weaving is a family of beadwork techniques in which seed beads are woven together into a flat fabric or a three-dimensional object such as a ball, clasp, box, or a piece of jewelry. All off-loom Bead Weaving techniques can be accomplished using a single needle and thread (no warp threads), but some have two-needle variations.

Jet Printing and Overview of Jet Print

Jet Printing

Jet printing is a non-contact application system originally developed for printing carpets, but now increasingly used in the textile sector.

The first commercial jet printing machine for carpets was the Elektrocolor, followed by the first Millitron machine. In the Millitron printing system, the injection of the dye into the substrate is accomplished by switching on and off a dye jet by means of a controlled air stream. As the carpet moves along, no parts of the machine are in contact with the face of the substrate. Air streams are used to keep continuously flowing dye jets, deflected into a catcher or drain tray. This dye is drained back to the surge tank, filtered and re-circulated. When a jet is requested to fire, the air jet is momentarily switched off, allowing the correct amount of dye to be injected into the textile substrate. The dye is supplied in continuous mode to the main storage tank to compensate for the amount of dye consumed

Spray printing systems and first generation jet printing methods cannot be controlled to produce a pre-specified pattern. Thus the equipment must first be employed to produce a wide range of effects and only then can selections be made from these by the designer or marketing staff.

An early improvement was made by the first digital carpet printers (Chromotronic and Titan by Zimmer and Tybar Engineering, respectively). These machines are based on the so-called drop on demand principle, namely the use of switchable electromagnetic valves placed in the dye liquor feed tubes to allow the jetting of discrete drops of dye liquor in a predetermined sequence according to the desired pattern.

In Jet printing machines, although the amount of dye applied can be digitally controlled at each point of the substrate, further penetration of the dye into the substrate is still dependent on capillary action of the fiber and fiber surface wetting forces. This can lead to problems of reproducibility (e.g. when the substrate is too wet) and means that it is still necessary to use thickeners to control the rheology of the dye liquor.

The latest improvement in jet printing of carpet and bulky fabrics is now represented by machines in which the color is injected with surgical precision deep into the face of the fabric without any machine parts touching the substrate. Here, the control of the quantity of liquor applied to the substrate (which may vary for example from lightweight articles to heavy quality fabrics) is achieved by varying not only the firing time but also the pumping pressure.

This system can be likened to an injection dyeing process. The name injection dyeing is used as a commercial name to define the technology applied on the latest Milliken’s Millitron machine. Another digital jet printing machine commercially available is Zimmer’s Chromojet. In the Chromojet system, the printing head is equipped with 512 nozzles. These are magnetically controlled and can open and close up to 400 times a second.

The carpet is accumulated into a J-box, and is then steamed and brushed. When it reaches the printing table it is stopped. The jets are mounted on a sliding frame that can itself be moved in the direction of the warp while the carpet remains stationary during the printing process.

Silver Characteristics, Applications, Jewelry, Silverware, Occurrence, Extraction, Price, Bars, Coins, Rounds

What is Silver | Define Silver | Silver Definition | Silver Meaning

Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, and it is used to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware, utensils (hence the term silverware), and currency coins. Today, silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics, further research into clinical potential continues.
Silver Characteristics

Silver is a very ductile, malleable (slightly harder than gold), monovalent coinage metal, with a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high degree of polish. It has the highest electrical conductivity of all metals, even higher than copper, but its greater cost has prevented it from being widely used in place of copper for electrical purposes. Despite this, 13,540 tons were used in the electromagnets used for enriching uranium during World War II (mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper).An exception to this is in radio-frequency engineering, particularly at VHF and higher frequencies, where silver plating to improve electrical conductivity of parts, including wires, is widely employed. Another notable exception is in high-end audio cables, where scaling copper conductors by 6% achieves slightly better results.

Among metals, pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity (the nonmetal diamond and superfluid helium II are higher) and one of the highest optical reflectivities.(Aluminium slightly outdoes silver in parts of the visible spectrum, and silver is a poor reflector of ultraviolet light). Silver also has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver halides are photosensitive and are remarkable for their ability to record a latent image that can later be developed chemically. Silver is stable in pure air and water, but tarnishes when it is exposed to air or water containing ozone or hydrogen sulfide, the latter forming a black layer of silver sulfide which can be cleaned off with dilute hydrochloric acid.The most common oxidation state of silver is +1 (for example, silver nitrate: AgNO3); in addition, +2 compounds (for example, silver(II) fluoride: AgF2) and the less common +3 compounds (for example, potassium tetrafluoroargentate: K[AgF4] ) are known.
Silver Isotopes

Naturally occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being the most abundant (51.839% natural abundance). Silver’s isotopes are almost equal in abundance, something which is rare in the periodic table. Silver’s atomic weight is 107.8682(2) g/mol.Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, and 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. This element has numerous meta states, the most stable being 108mAg (t1/2 = 418 years), 110mAg (t1/2 = 249.79 days) and 106mAg (t1/2 = 8.28 days). All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than an hour, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than three minutes.

Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 93.943 (94Ag) to 126.936 (127Ag);the primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 107Ag, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. The primary decay products before 107Ag are palladium (element 46) isotopes, and the primary products after are cadmium (element 48) isotopes.

The palladium isotope 107Pd decays by beta emission to 107Ag with a half-life of 6.5 million years. Iron meteorites are the only objects with a high-enough palladium-to-silver ratio to yield measurable variations in 107Ag abundance. Radiogenic 107Ag was first discovered in the Santa Clara meteorite in 1978.The discoverers suggest the coalescence and differentiation of iron-cored small planets may have occurred 10 million years after a nucleosynthetic event. 107Pd–107Ag correlations observed in bodies that have clearly been melted since the accretion of the solar system must reflect the presence of unstable nuclides in the early solar system.
Silver Applications

Many well known uses of silver involve its precious metal properties, including currency, decorative items and mirrors. The contrast between the appearance of its bright white color to other media makes it very useful to the visual arts. It has also long been used to confer high monetary value as objects (such as silver coins and investment bars) or make objects symbolic of high social or political rank.
Silver Jewelry | Silverware

Jewelry and silverware are traditionally made from sterling silver (standard silver), an alloy of 92.5% silver with 7.5% copper. In the US, only an alloy consisting of at least 90.0% fine silver can be marketed as “silver” (thus frequently stamped 900). Sterling silver (stamped 925) is harder than pure silver, and has a lower melting point (893 °C) than either pure silver or pure copper.Britannia silver is an alternative, hallmark-quality standard containing 95.8% silver, often used to make silver tableware and wrought plate. With the addition of germanium, the patented modified alloy Argentium Sterling silver is formed, with improved properties, including resistance to firescale.

Sterling silver jewelry is often plated with a thin coat of .999 fine silver to give the item a shiny finish. This process is called flashing. Silver jewelry can also be plated with rhodium (for a bright, shiny look) or gold.

Silver is a constituent of almost all colored carat gold alloys and carat gold solders, giving the alloys paler color and greater hardness.White 9 carat gold contains 62.5% silver and 37.5% gold, while 22 carat gold contains up to 91.7 gold and 8.4% silver or copper or a mixture of both. The more copper added, the more orange the gold becomes. Rose Gold (stamped 375 or 9K (can be stamped 9c) was very popular in the UK in the late 19th century.

Historically, the training and guild organization of goldsmiths included silversmiths as well, and the two crafts remain largely overlapping. Unlike blacksmiths, silversmiths do not shape the metal while it is red-hot, but instead, work it at room temperature with gentle and carefully-placed hammer blows. The essence of silversmithing is to take a flat piece of metal and to transform it into a useful object using different hammers, stakes and other simple tools.

While silversmiths specialize in, and principally work, silver, they also work with other metals, such as gold, copper, steel, and brass. They make jewelry, silverware, armor, vases, and other artistic items. Because silver is such a malleable metal, silversmiths have a large range of choices with how they prefer to work the metal. Historically, silversmiths are mostly referred to as goldsmiths, which was usually the same guild. In the western Canadian silversmith tradition, guilds do not exist; however, mentoring through colleagues becomes a method of professional learning within a community of craftspeople.

Silver is much cheaper than gold, though still valuable, and so is very popular with jewelers who are just starting out and cannot afford to make pieces in gold, or as a practicing material for goldsmith apprentices. Silver has also become very fashionable, and is used frequently in more artistic jewelry pieces.

Traditionally, silversmiths mostly made silverware (cutlery, table flatware, bowls, candlesticks and such). Only in more recent times has silversmithing become mainly work in jewelry, as much less solid silver tableware is now handmade.
Silver Occurrence | Silver Extraction

Silver is found in native form, as an alloy with gold (electrum), and in ores containing sulfur, arsenic, antimony or chlorine. Ores include argentite (Ag2S), chlorargyrite (AgCl) which includes horn silver , and pyrargyrite (Ag3SbS3). The principal sources of silver are the ores of copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc obtained from Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, China, Australia, Chile, Poland and Serbia.[5] Peru, Bolivia and Mexico have been mining silver since 1546, and are still major world producers. Top silver-producing mines are Proaño / Fresnillo (Mexico), Cannington (Queensland, Australia), Dukat (Russia), Uchucchacua (Peru), San Cristobal (Bolivia) and Greens Creek (Alaska).

The metal is primarily produced through electrolytic copper refining, gold, nickel and zinc refining, and by application of the Parkes process on lead metal obtained from lead ores that contain small amounts of silver. Commercial-grade fine silver is at least 99.9% pure, and purities greater than 99.999% are available. In 2007, Peru was the world’s top producer of silver, closely followed by Mexico, according to the British Geological Survey
Silver Price

At an April 2011 price of about $49 USD per troy ounce,silver is about 1/30th the price of gold. The ratio has varied from 1/15 to 1/100 in the past 100 years.

In 1980, the silver price rose to a peak for modern times of US$49.45 per troy ounce (TO) due to market manipulation of Nelson Bunker Hunt and Herbert Hunt.[citation needed] Some time after Silver Thursday, the price was back to $10/TO.[48] By December 2001, the price had dropped to US$4.15/TO, and in May 2006, it had risen back as high as US$15.21/TO. In March 2008, silver reached US$21.34/TO.In late April 2011, silver reached an all-time high of $49.76/TO.

In earlier times, silver has commanded much higher prices. In the early 15th century, the price of silver is estimated to have surpassed $800 per ounce, based on 1998 dollars.The discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World during the succeeding centuries has caused the price to diminish greatly.

The price of silver is important in Judaic law. The lowest fiscal amount a Jewish court, or Beth Din, can convene to adjudicate a case over is a shova pruta (value of a Babylonian pruta coin). This is fixed at 1/8 of a gram of pure, unrefined silver, at market price.
Silver as an Investment

Silver, like other precious metals, may be used as an investment. For more than four thousand years, silver has been regarded as a form of money and store of value. However, since the end of the silver standard, silver has lost its role as legal tender in the United States. In 2009, the main demand resulted from industrial applications (40%), jewellery, bullion coins and exchange-traded products.
Silver Investment Methods
Bars

A traditional way of investing in silver is by buying actual bullion bars. In some countries, like Switzerland and Liechtenstein, bullion bars can be bought or sold over the counter at major banks.

Physical silver, such as bars or coins, may be stored in a home safe, a safe deposit box at a bank, or placed in allocated (also known as non-fungible) or unallocated (fungible or pooled) storage with a bank or dealer. Silver is traded in the spot market with the code XAG. When settled in United States Dollars, the code is XAGUSD.
Silver Bars

1000 oz troy bars – These bars weigh about 68 pounds avoirdupois (31 kg) and vary about 10% as to weight, as bars range from 900 ozt to about 1,100 ozt (28 to 34 kg). These are COMEX and LBMA good delivery bars.

100 oz troy bars – These bars weigh 6.8 pounds (3.11 kg) and are among the most popular with retail investors. Popular brands are Engelhard and Johnson Matthey. Those brands cost a bit more, usually about 40 cents to 2.00 dollars per troy ounce above the spot price, but that price may vary with market conditions.

Odd weight retail bars – These bars cost less and generally have a wider spread, due to the extra work it takes to calculate their value and the extra risk due to the lack of a good brand name.

1 kilogram bars (32.15 oz troy)

10 oz troy bars and 1 oz troy bars (311 and 31.1 g)
Silver Coins | Silver Rounds

Buying silver coins is another popular method of physically holding silver. One example is the 99.99% pure Canadian Silver Maple Leaf. Coins may be minted as either fine silver or junk silver, the latter being older coins with a smaller percentage of silver. U.S. coins 1964 and older (half dollars, dimes, and quarters) are 25 grams per dollar of face value and 90% silver (22½ g silver per dollar). All 1965-1970 and one half of the 1975-1976 Bicentennial San Francisco proof and mint set Kennedy half dollars are clad in a silver alloy and contain just under one half of the silver in the pre-1965 issues.

Junk-silver coins are also available as sterling silver coins, which were officially minted until 1919 in the United Kingdom and Canada and 1945 in Australia. These coins are 92.5% silver and are in the form of (in decreasing weight) Crowns, Half-crowns, Florins, Shillings, Sixpences, and threepence. The tiny threepence weighs 1.41 grams, and the Crowns are 28.27 grams (1.54 grams heavier than a US $1). Canada produced silver coins with 80% silver content from 1920 to 1967.

Other hard money enthusiasts use .999 fine silver rounds as a store of value. A cross between bars and coins, silver rounds are produced by a huge array of mints, generally contain a troy ounce of silver in the shape of a coin, but have no status as legal tender. Rounds can be ordered with a custom design stamped on the faces or in assorted batches.

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Why Textilesindepth.com and How Will I Be Benefited

Welcome to Textilesindepth.com. A Multi Portal Website with 9 Portals Specialized Only on Textiles, Apparel, Fashion, Beauty, Jewelery, Leather and Footwear for Classifieds, Jobs, Question and Answers, Blogs, Designs, Portfolios, Books | Magazines, Business and Colleges.

Applications List and Features on Textilesindepth.com

You Can Post Your Ads on Our Classifieds Portal

(Free)

You Can Register Free as an Employee and Submit Your Resumes or You Can Register Free and an Employer and List Your Job Openings on Our Jobs Portal

(Free)

You Can Ask Questions and Answer Questions on our Q & A Portal

(Free)

You Can Post Blogs on Your Interesting Topic and Make the World Recognize Talent on Our Blog Portal

(Free)

You Can Upload Your Personal Designs on Our Design Portal

(Free)

You Can Create Your Portfolio With Skills You are Blessed With on Our Portfolio Portal

(Free)

You Can List Your Favorite Books on Our Books and Magazines Portal

(Free)

You Can List Your Business Details on Our Business Portal

(Free)

You Can List Your College Details on Our College Portal

(Free)

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