Birth Defect, Congenital Birth Defects, Cerebral Palsy, Club Foot, Hip Dislocation
What are Birth Defects
Birth defects are defined as abnormalities of structure, function, or body metabolism that are present at birth. Major birth defects are abnormalities that lead to developmental or physical disabilities or require medical or surgical treatment. There are more than 4,000 different known birth defects, ranging from minor to serious, and although many can be treated or cured, birth defects are the leading cause of death in the first year of life. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Causes of Birth Defects | What Causes Birth Defects
Birth defects can be caused by genetic, environmental, or unknown factors. For most birth defects, the cause is believed to be an interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors.
Structural Birth Defects | Metabolic Birth Defects
Structural birth defects or metabolic birth defects are those in which a specific body part is missing or formed incorrectly; metabolic birth defects are those in which there is an inborn problem in body chemistry. The most common type of major structural defects are heart defects, which affect 1 in 150 babies in the United States.Other common structural birth defects include spina bifida, cleft palate, clubfoot, and congenital dislocated hip.Metabolic birth defects affect 1 in 3,500 babies and usually involve a missing or incorrectly formed enzyme (a protein necessary for processing chemical substances in the body). Most children with a metabolic birth defect do not have any visible abnormalities, but metabolic defects are usually harmful or can be even fatal. Metabolic defects include Tay-Sachs disease, a fatal disease that affects the central nervous system, and phenylketonuria (PKU), which affects the way the body processes protein. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Congenital Birth Defects
Congenital Birth Defects are caused by congenital infections result when a mother gets an infection before or during the pregnancy. Infections that can cause Congenital Birth Defects include rubella (German measles), cytomegalovirus (CMV), syphilis, toxoplasmosis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, parvovirus, and, rarely, chickenpox. None of these affect 100% of babies whose mothers are infected during pregnancy. If the mother is infected during early pregnancy, rubella carries the highest risk for birth defects (approximately 20%). Because of nearly universal immunization in the United States, rubella is very, very rare and the congenital rubella syndrome is almost never seen. CMV is probably the most common congenital infection and may be associated with intellectual disability (mental retardation) and hearing loss.
Other causes of Congenital Birth Defects include alcohol abuse by the mother. Although a few medications, such as medicines used for epilepsy, are associated with increased risks for certain Congenital Birth Defects, most commonly prescribed drugs are not associated with a significant risk of Congenital Birth Defects. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Environmental Birth Defects
Environmental birth defects have more to do with the mother’s health and exposure to chemicals or diseases. When a mother has certain infections (such as rubella) during pregnancy, it can cause birth defects. Alcohol abuse by the mother causes fetal alcohol syndrome, and certain medications taken by the mother can cause birth defects.
Multifactorial birth defects are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate.Although you can take steps to prevent birth defects, a birth defect can happen even if you or your partner have no history of birth defects in your families or if you’ve had healthy children in the past. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Common Birth Defects
Oral Clefting | Cleft lip and palate
What is Cleft lip and palate
Cleft lip and palate occurs when the tissues of the mouth or lip don’t form properly during fetal development. A cleft lip is a long opening between the upper lip and the nose. A cleft palate is an opening between the roof of the mouth and the nasal cavity.
In the United States, oral clefting occurs in 1 in 700 to 1,000 births, making it one of the most common major birth defects. Clefts occur more frequently in children of Asian, Latino, or Native American descent; it’s believed that a variety of environmental and genetic factors cause clefting, but it’s unknown exactly which ones. Clefting is a birth defect that can be surgically repaired after birth. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
What is Cerebral Palsy | Causes of Cerebral Palsy | Symptome of Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral palsy in children usually isn’t detected until weeks to months after birth, depending on the severity of the condition. The term Cerebral palsy in children refers to a group of conditions affecting control of movement and caused by brain damage. Cerebral palsy in children have difficulty controlling the motions their muscles make â€” which muscles and how severely they are impaired varies from person to person. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
About 70% of people with cerebral palsy in children also have other disabilities, most often intellectual disability (mental retardation). Some Cerebral palsy in children may have trouble walking; others may not be able to swallow or speak. Cerebral palsy in children occurs in 2 to 6 of every 1,000 births; about 10,000 children born in the United States each year develop cerebral palsy.
In most cases, the cause of cerebral palsy in children isn’t known, but some are due to prematurity or brain damage during the last trimester of pregnancy or around the time of birth.
Cerebral palsy in children can also have a genetic cause or may be due to head injuries or meningitis that occur after birth. Therefore, not all cerebral palsy in children is considered a birth defect. Therapy to improve motor skills, surgery, and braces and other types of equipment and assistive technology can help improve mobility and muscle control. Speech therapy and occupational therapy can help as well in Cerebral palsy in children. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Clubfoot in Children
What is Clubfoot | Clubfoot Causes | Clubfoot Treatment
Clubfoot is a term used to describe a group of structural defects of the foot and ankle in which the bones, joints, muscles, and blood vessels are formed incorrectly. Clubfoot defects range from mild to severe and may affect one or both feet. Feet affected by this Clubfoot defect most often point down, turn in, and usually have a limited range of motion.
Clubfoot is a relatively common birth defect, affecting about 1 in 735 babies born each year in the United States. Boys are affected almost twice as often as girls. The cause of Clubfoot is unknown, but Clubfoot can be treated by applying a cast immediately after birth. This works the majority of the time; if it doesn’t, surgery and further casting are usually required in Clubfoot. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Hip dislocation | Hip Dislocation in Infants | Hip Dislocation treatment
Congenital hip dislocation occurs when the round upper end of the thighbone doesn’t sit inside the socket of the pelvis properly. Hip Location can happen in one or both hips. Hip Location happens in about 1 or 2 in 1,000 births, more often in girls, and tends to run in families, although the exact cause is unknown. Usually Hip Location is detected at birth and treated immediately by placing the baby in a soft sling for 6 to 9 months. If Hip Location is not recognized and treated early, surgery may be necessary. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
What is Congenital Hypothyroidism | Congenital hypothyroidism in Infants
Congenital hypothyroidism, which occurs in about 1 in 3,000 to 4,000 births, results when the baby’s thyroid gland (located in the front of the neck) is absent or underdeveloped at birth or if there is a metabolic defect blocking production of thyroid hormone. This causes the infant to be unable to produce adequate amounts of thyroid hormone, which is important for supporting normal growth and brain development. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Developmental Delay | Intellectual Disability
Causes of Developmental Delay | Causes of Intellectual Disability
Developmental delay and permanent intellectual disability can result if the condition is not recognized and treated (with oral thyroid hormone) within the first few weeks of life. Because of this, every state in the United States and most other countries routinely screen all newborns for the condition with a blood test performed shortly after birth. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Fetal alcohol syndrome
What is Fetal alcohol syndrome| Causes of Fetal alcohol syndrome| Effects of Fetal alcohol syndrome | Prevention of Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is characterized by slowed growth, mental retardation, abnormalities in facial features, and problems with the central nervous system. Every year between 2,000 and 12,000 babies in the United States are estimated to be born with defects caused by alcohol. FAS cannot be cured or treated, but can be prevented by avoiding alcohol intake during pregnancy. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Neural Tube Defects
What are Neural tube defects | Causes of Neural tube defects
Neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in the first month of pregnancy when the structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord is forming. Normally, this structure folds into a tube by the 29th day after conception. When the tube doesn’t close completely, the baby has an NTD; many babies with these defects are stillborn or die soon after birth. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
The two most common forms of Neural Tube Defects are
Spina bifida, which happens when the spinal column doesn’t close completely around the spinal cord. It ranges from mild to severe and can be associated with loss of bladder and bowel function, paralysis, and, in some cases, death.
Anencephaly, which occurs in 3 out of 10,000 births, involves the lack of development of parts of the brain. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Neural Tube Defects are multifactorial defects, which according to the March of Dimes occur in about 2,500 babies a year in the United States, or 1 out of every 2,000 live births. Studies have shown that the frequency of these defects may be substantially reduced when the mother gets enough folic acid before and during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester.
Women must make sure to receive enough folic acid before they become pregnant because the neural tube closes about 1 week after the first missed menstrual period â€” so mothers cannot wait to start folic acid when they first realize they’re pregnant. For this reason, it is recommended that women take folic acid throughout their reproductive years. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Birth Defects of the Heart | Heart Birth Defects
Heart Birth defects occur when any of the parts of the heart fail to develop properly. They include
- Atrial and ventricular septal defects, which are holes in the walls that separate the heart into left and right sides.
- Patent ductus arteriosus, which is present when the tubular blood channel that allows the blood to bypass the lungs while the baby is in the womb doesn’t close (as expected) after birth. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
- Aortic or pulmonary valve stenosis, which are narrowings of the valves that allow blood to flow from the heart to the lungs and other parts of the body.
- Coarctation of the aorta, which is a narrowing of the aorta, the major blood vessel carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
- Transposition of the great arteries, which is the reversal of the connections of the aorta and the pulmonary artery with the heart. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
- Hypoplastic left heart system, which is when the side of the heart that pumps blood to the body is underdeveloped or nonexistent.
- Tetralogy of Fallot, which is a combination of four heart defects that involves restriction in the flow of blood to the lungs.
Intestinal Birth Defects
Gastrointestinal defects are structural defects that can occur at any point along the gastrointestinal tract, which is made up of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus. The incomplete or abnormal development of any of these organs can cause obstructions or blockages that can lead to swallowing difficulties, vomiting, and problems with bowel movements. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Genetic Birth Defects
what is Cystic fibrosis | Causes of Cystic fibrosis | Symptoms of Cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease mainly affecting the respiratory and digestive systems. An inability to carry chloride (one of the chemicals in table and body salts) from the cells that line organs such as the lungs and pancreas to their outer surfaces causes the body to produce a thick, sticky mucus. Children with CF can have trouble breathing and digesting food; symptoms include chronic respiratory problems and pneumonia, bulky stools, and poor weight gain. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
This defect is genetic â€” 1 in 4 children with two parents who carry an altered form of the gene for CF will get the disease; about 1 in 30 people in the United States carries an altered form of this gene. It affects approximately 30,000 people in the United States, most of them Caucasians. Treatment includes therapy to control infections and maintain lung function and adequate nutrition. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
What is Down syndrome | Causes of Down syndrome | Symptoms of Down syndrome
Down syndrome is a group of abnormalities that occur in children who are born with an extra (third) copy of chromosome number 21 in their cells. Children with the syndrome have intellectual disability (mental retardation) and distinctive facial and other physical features; these problems are often accompanied by heart defects and other health problems.
The severity of symptoms varies widely from person to person, with the degree of delay ranging from mild to moderate to severe. Down syndrome is a relatively common birth defect, affecting between 1 in 800 and 1 in 1,000 births. The chances of having a baby with Down syndrome increase dramatically with the age of the mother; a woman who’s 35 has a 1 in 350 chance of having a baby with Down syndrome, and a woman who’s 45 has a 1 in 30 chance. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Although some of the health problems caused by Down syndrome (such as heart defects) may be treated through medication and surgery, there is no cure.
What is Muscular dystrophy | Causes of Muscular dystrophy | Symptoms of Muscular dystrophy | Muscular dystrophy Treatment
Muscular dystrophy is a general term that’s used to describe more than 40 different types of muscle diseases, all of which involve progressive weakness and degeneration of the muscles that control movement. Heart muscles and some other involuntary muscles are also affected in some forms of muscular dystrophy, and a few forms involve other organs as well. Almost all forms of the disorder are genetic and cannot be cured. Treatment includes physical and respiratory therapy, the use of assistive technology, and medications. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
What is Phenylketonuria | Causes of Phenylketonuria | Symptoms of Phenylketonuria | Phenylketonuria Treatment
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder that affects the way the body processes protein; it can cause intellectual disability (mental retardation). A baby born with PKU appears normal, but if the disease isn’t treated, the child will suffer from developmental delays that are apparent by the first birthday. About 1 baby in 10,000 to 25,000 in the United States is born with PKU. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
This is a genetic disorder. If both parents carry an altered form of the gene, there’s a 1 in 4 chance a child will be born with the disorder. In other words, a child will inherit two copies of the altered gene. Fortunately, it is usually detected within a few days after birth by a screening blood test that is routinely performed on infants in the United States and other developed countries. If the child is promptly treated with a special diet, intellectual disability can be prevented. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot
Tay Sachs disease
What is Tay Sachs disease | Causes of Tay Sachs disease | Symptoms of Tay Sachs disease | Tay Sachs disease Treatment
Tay-Sachs disease affects the central nervous system, causing blindness, dementia, paralysis, seizures, and deafness; it’s usually fatal within the first few years of life. Babies with this disease appear normal when they are born; the symptoms develop during the first few months of life.
It is genetic and occurs most often in Jews of central or eastern European descent or in people of French-Canadian/Cajun ancestry; when two parents are carriers, a child has a 1 in 4 chance of having it. Although there isn’t any treatment for this disease, there’s a test to help parents determine if they are carriers of the gene. congenital birth defects, birth defects, cerebral palsy, club foot