Gauze Cloth Overview, Material and Uses

Gauze Cloth

Gauze Cloth is a thin, sheer and loosely woven plain-weave fabric made from cotton, wool, silk, viscose, rayon or acetate. Gauze Fabric is lightweight, transparent and airy fabric. Gauze Cloth is fine and open-textured. Gauze fabric is suitable for summer wear.

The word ‘Gauze’ has been derived from ‘Gaza’. It is believed that gauze has been originated in Gaza city on the Mediterranean. In medieval times, the French imported gauze from Gaza. The Chinese spun gauze became familiar in Rome around 50 B.C.

Gauze Cloth is popularly thought of as a thin, translucent fabric with a loose open weave. Technically gauze is a weave structure in which the warp yarns are arranged in pairs and are crossed before and after each weft yarn keeping the weft firmly in place. This weave structure is used to add stability to fabric, which is important when using fine yarns loosely spaced. However, this weave structure can be used with any weight of yarn, and can be seen in some rustic textiles made from coarse hand-spun plant fiber yarns.

Characteristics of Gauze Cloth

  • is thin and lightweight.
  • is transparent.
  • Gauze Cloth is fine and airy.
  • is soft and comfortable.
  • is open-textured.

Gauze Cloth Uses

Lightweight property of the Gauze Cloth has made it perfect for warm summer days. They are widely used as apparel, blouses, surgical dressings, and curtains. The heavyweight gauze fabrics are used as diapers, which are exceptionally durable and comfortable.

It is a transparent fabric, which filters light, hence it is very much used as casual window dressings like panels and scarves.

Types of Gauze Cloth

  • Cotton
  • Linen
  • Silk
  • Wool

Blue Zircon Stone Meaning and Natural Zircon

Blue Zircon

Blue Zircon has great brilliance and intensive fire due to its high refractive index and strong dispersion. The shine is vitreous to a luminous sheen. The rigidity of it varies from 6.5-7.5 on Mohs scale. But in spite of that it is brittle and therefore sensitive to knocks and pressure. Blue Zircon along with turquoise is birthstone of Sagittarius. It looks best in daylight. In general it is transparent to translucent. Impurities cause the various color. Some crystals contain radioactive thorium and uranium. These slightly radioactive zircons are very unusual in the trade. These are highly prized and they pose no heath risk to its user.

Blue Zircon has the propensity to wear along facet edges. Hot water should be avoided; it should be protected from sudden temperature changes and household chemicals. Some gentle soap may be employed to clean it. A soft brush can be used to remove dirt from the crevices. Blue Zircon jewellery should be stored carefully in a separate box.

There are a number of ways in which Blue Zircon is used. Some of them can be mentioned as people born in December can use it as a conventional birthstone, Blue Zircon pendants and rings are very popular among the jewelry lovers, it can bring in success, financially and also in general and it is helpful for the insomniacs. There is some mythological value related to this gemstone. Hindu poets wrote of the Kalpa Tree, the ultimate gift to the gods, which was a glowing tree covered with gemstone fruit with leaves of Blue Zircon.

Blue Zircon is also said that in the past this precious gemstone was used to bring prosperity, aid sleep, and encourage honour and wisdom. In ancient time one believed that the cosmos reflects in the gemstones. This stone is associated with planet Pluto. It relieves pain. It is said to quicken ones appetite. It ensures a deep calm sleep. It helps one be more at peace with oneself.

Blue Zircon also provides the wearer with wisdom, honour and riches. One should be careful as the lost of lustre on a Zircon stone reflects danger. It helps rising ones self-esteem as well.

Beaver Clothing and Fabric, Beavers Uses

Beaver Clothing

Beaver clothing is a thick and heavy silk or cotton fabric with a smooth nap. It is high quality and very soft cloth. Beaver clothing gives an excellent wear and is very warm. It is very luxurious and shiny. It is mostly used as warm coats.

Beaver clothing is of twill weave. Of all the napped fabrics, it has the longest nap. The length of the nap varies from cloth to cloth and its uses. The nap is on both the sides – double faced. Usually light colored fibers are added to the nap to increase the shine of the cloth. It is made to stimulate beaver fur. It is originally from English but mostly found in Europe and America.

Due to the insulating power of the fur, it is most widely used for repeling cold weather. Its a darker fur and has been used in the making of coats and other cold weather clothing. Beaver clothing repels water well and traps heat.

Beaver Clothing Properties

  • It has heavy nap.
  • It is furled.
  • It is thick.
  • It is an excellent wear.
  • It is very warm.
  • It is luxurious.
  • It is shiny.

Beaver clothing Uses

used as warm coats. Cotton beaver is used as hats, shoe linings, work cloths, maritime cloths and sports cloths.

Leatherette Material and Leatherette Fabric


Leatherette is a form of artificial leather, usually made by covering a fabric base with plastic. It can be made of a natural or a synthetic fibre which is then covered with a soft PVC layer. There are several other materials that can be used as leather substitutes including lorica, vegetan, birko-flor, cork leather and rexine.

A disadvantage of plastic leatherette is that it is not porous and does not allow air to pass through it. Thus, sweat can accumulate if leatherette is used for clothing, car seat coverings, etc. One of its primary advantages is especially in cars, is that it requires little maintenance in comparison to leather, and does not crack or fade as easily. It’s cheaper to produce than leather and easier to keep clean, and more durable. However, it’s generally colder in winter and hotter in summer than the real stuff.

During a fire, it may cause serious skin damage, because it burns more vigorously than leather and can melt.

It is an imitation leather, especially one that is made with paper and cloth, or from plastic. Leatherette bound books and cameras are good examples of leatherette. It wears down much less quickly than leather and is the easiest texture to keep clean.

Vegan Diet, Vegan Diet Plan Menu for Weight Loss, Vegan Diet Meal Plan, Vegan Diet Foods

Vegan Diet | Vegan Diet Plan for Weight Loss

What is Vegan Diet

Vegetarians with a balanced diet that is low in fat and high in fiber tend to have lower incidence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity and some forms of cancer. Meat-eaters are more likely to be overweight than vegetarians and vegans.

Vegan Diet Meal Plan | Vegan Diet Plan Menu

Since a vegan diet plan does not contain animal fats, it is, be default, a low fat diet plan. It is therefore higher in complex carbohydrates relative to plans that include meat. This is definitely an advantage, but a vegan diet plan must be delicately balanced to provide the right combination and variety of protein, fats and certain minerals such as iron.

A balanced vegan diet plan follows the same principles as any healthy eating plan, with an emphasis on certain foods.

Vegan Diet Foods

Grains and cereals such as wholegrain bread, brown rice, wholewheat pasta, muesli.
Legumes, nuts and seeds including soya beans. kidney beans, split peas, lentils, almonds, cashews, sesame seeds.
Variety of fruits and vegetables.
Fat free or low fat dairy and soy products.

Leather Tanning Process, Methods, History, Tannery, Vegetable, Mineral, Chrome Tanning, Tawing

Leather Tanning | Tanning

Tanning is the process of making leather, which does not easily decompose, from the skins of animals, which do. Traditionally, tanning used tannin, an acidic chemical compound. Coloring may occur during tanning. A tannery is the term for a place where these skins are processed.
Leather Tanning Process | Leather Tanning Methods

Tanning leather involves a process which permanently alters the protein structure of skin. Making rawhide does not require the use of tannin and is made simply by removing the flesh and fat and then the hair by way of soaking in an aqueous solution (often called liming when using lime and water or bucking when using wood ash (lye) and water), then scraping over a beam with a somewhat dull knife, and then leaving to dry, usually stretched on a frame so that it dries flat. The two aforementioned solutions for removing the hair also act to clean the fiber network of the skin and therefore allow penetration and action of the tanning agent.

Tanning can be performed with either vegetable or mineral methods. Before tanning, the skins are unhaired, degreased, desalted and soaked in water over a period of 6 hours to 2 days. To prevent damage of the skin by bacterial growth during the soaking period, biocides, such as [tmtcb - thio ciano thio methyl benzo thyazol]. After 1980, it was forbidden the use of, pentachlorophenol and quicksilver (mercury base) biocides, and its derivates.
Leather Tanning History | Tannery

The English word for tanning is from medieval Latin tannāre, deriv. of tannum (oak bark), related to Old High German tanna meaning oak or fir (related to modern Tannenbaum). This refers to use of the bark of oaks (the original source of tannin) in some kinds of hide preservation.

In ancient history, tanning was considered a noxious or odiferous trade and relegated to the outskirts of town, amongst the poor. Indeed, tanning by ancient methods is so foul smelling that tanneries are still isolated from those towns today where the old methods are used. Ancient civilizations used leather for waterskins, bags, harnesses, boats, armour, quivers, scabbards, boots and sandals. Tanning was being carried out by the South Asian inhabitants of Mehrgarh between 7000–3300 BC. Around 2500 BC, the Sumerians began using leather, affixed by copper studs, on chariot wheels.

Skins typically arrived at the tannery dried stiff and dirty with soil and gore. First, the ancient tanners would soak the skins in water to clean and soften them. Then they would pound and scour the skin to remove any remaining flesh and fat. Next, the tanner needed to remove the hair fibers from the skin. This was done by either soaking the skin in urine, painting it with an alkaline lime mixture, or simply letting the skin putrefy for several months then dipping it in a salt solution. After the hair fibers were loosened, the tanners scraped them off with a knife.

Once the hair was removed, the tanners would bate the material by pounding dung into the skin or soaking the skin in a solution of animal brains. Among the kinds of dung commonly used were that of dogs or pigeons. Sometimes the dung was mixed with water in a large vat, and the prepared skins were kneaded in the dung water until they became supple, but not too soft. The ancient tanner might use his bare feet to knead the skins in the dung water, and the kneading could last two or three hours.

It was this combination of urine, animal feces and decaying flesh that made ancient tanneries so odiferous.

Children employed as dung gatherers were a common sight in ancient cities. Also common were “piss-pots” located on street corners, where human urine could be collected for use in tanneries or by washerwomen. In some variations of the process, cedar oil, alum or tannin were applied to the skin as a tanning agent. As the skin was stretched, it would lose moisture and absorb the agent.

Leftover leather would be turned into glue. Tanners would place scraps of hides in a vat of water and let them deteriorate for months. The mixture would then be placed over a fire to boil off the water to produce hide glue.

A tannery may be associated with a grindery, originally a whetstone facility for sharpening knives and other sharp tools, but later could carry shoemakers’ tools and materials for sale.
Vegetable Tanning

Vegetable tanning uses tannin (this is the origin of the name of the process). The tannins (a class of polyphenol astringent chemical) occur naturally in the bark and leaves of many plants. Tannins bind to the collagen proteins in the hide and coat them causing them to become less water-soluble, and more resistant to bacterial attack. The process also causes the hide to become more flexible. The primary barks, processed in Bark Mills and used in modern times are chestnut, oak, redoul, tanoak, hemlock, quebracho, mangrove, wattle (acacia; see catechu), and myrobalan. Hides are stretched on frames and immersed for several weeks in vats of increasing concentrations of tannin. Vegetable tanned hide is flexible and is used for luggage and furniture.
Mineral Tanning

Prior to the introduction of the basic chromium species in tanning, several steps are required to produce a tannable hide. These steps include scudding, or removing the hair, liming, or the introduction of alkali agents such as sodium hydroxide, deliming, or restoring neutral pH, bating, or softening the skin with enzymes, and pickling, or lowering pH of the hide with salt and sulfuric acid. The pH is very acidic when the chromium is introduced to ensure that the chromium complexes are small enough to fit in between the fibers and residues of the collagen. Once the desired level of penetration of chrome into the substance is achieved,the pH of the material is raised again to facilitate the process. This step is known as “basification”. In the raw state chrome tanned skins are blue and therefore referred to as “wet blue.” Chrome tanning is faster than vegetable tanning (less than a day for this part of the process) and produces a stretchable leather which is excellent for use in handbags and garments.
Chrome Tanning

Chromium(III) sulfate ([Cr(H2O)6]2(SO4)3) is regarded as the most efficient and effective tanning agent.Chromium(III) compounds of the sort used in tanning are significantly less toxic than hexavalent chromium. Chromium(III) sulfate dissolves to give the hexaaquachromium(III) cation, [Cr(H2O)6]3+, which at higher pH undergoes processes called olation to give polychromium(III) compounds that are active in tanning,being the cross-linking of the collagen subunits. The chemistry of [Cr(H2O)6]3+ is more complex in the tanning bath rather than in water due to the presence of a variety of ligands. Some ligands include the sulfate anion, the collagen’s carboxyl groups, amine groups from the side chains of the amino acids, as well as “masking agents.” Masking agents are carboxylic acids, such as acetic acid, used to suppress formation of polychromium(III) chains. Masking agents allow the tanner to further increase the pH to increase collagen’s reactivity without inhibiting the penetration of the chromium(III) complexes.

Collagen is characterized by its high content of glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, usually in the repeat -gly-pro-hypro-gly-.These residues give rise to collagen’s helical structure. Collagen’s high content of hydroxyproline allows for significant cross-linking by hydrogen bonding within the helical structure. Ionized carboxyl groups (RCO2-) are formed by hydrolysis of the collagen by the action of hydroxide. This conversion occurs during the liming process, before introduction of the tanning agent (chromium salts). The ionized carboxyl groups coordinate as ligands to the chromium(III) centers of the oxo-hydroxide clusters.

Gustavson identified that pre-tanned collagen has spacing of 10 Å between protein chains whereas in tanned, swollen collagen the spacing is 17 Å. The difference could not be compensated by mononuclear chromium cross-linking. This evidence supports cross-linking polychromium species. A model for cross-linking is given.

Subsequent to application of the chromium agent, the pH is increased to 4.0-4.3 through addition of sodium bicarbonate. This increase induces cross-linking between the chromium and the collagen. The pH increase is normally accompanied by a gradual temperature increase up to 40 °C. Chromium’s ability to form such stable bridged bonds explains why it is considered one of the most efficient tanning compounds. Chromium-tanned leather can contain between 4 and 5% of chromium.This efficiency is characterized by its drastic increase in the hydrothermal stability of the skin, or its resistance to shrinkage in heated water.

Tawing is a method that uses alum and aluminium salts, generally in conjunction with other products such as egg yolk, flour, and other salts. The leather becomes tawed by soaking in a warm potash alum and salts solution, between 20°C and 30°C. The process increases the leather’s pliability, stretchability, softness, and quality. Adding egg yolk and flour to the standard soaking solution further enhances its fine handling characteristics. Then, the leather is air dried (“crusted”) for several weeks, which allows it to stabilize. Tawing is traditionally used on pigskins and goatskins to create the whitest colors. However, exposure and aging may cause slight yellowing over time and, if it remains in a wet condition, tawed leather will suffer from decay. Technically, tawing is not tanning.

Depending on the finish desired, the hide may be waxed, rolled, lubricated, injected with oil, split, shaved and, of course, dyed. Suedes, nubucks etc. are finished by raising the nap of the leather by rolling with a rough surface.

The first stage is the preparation for tanning. The second stage is the actual tanning and other chemical treatment. The third stage, known as retanning, applies retanning agents and dyes to the material to provide the physical strength and properties desired depending on the end product. The fourth and final stage, known as finishing, is used to apply finishing material to the surface or finish the surface without the application of any chemicals if so desired.

Polytetrafluoroethylene Overview, PTFE Coating


Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best known brand name of PTFE is Teflon by DuPont Co.

Polytetrafluoroethylene is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic, neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction against any solid.

Polytetrafluoroethylene is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, and so it is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals. Where used as a lubricant, Polytetrafluoroethylene reduces friction, wear, and energy consumption of machinery. It is also commonly used as a graft material in surgical interventions.

Polytetrafluoroethylene is a thermoplastic polymer, which is a white solid at room temperature, with a density of about 2200 kg/m3. According to DuPont, its melting point is 600 K (327 °C; 620 °F). Its mechanical properties degrade gradually at temperatures above 194 K (−79 °C; −110 °F). Polytetrafluoroethylene gains its properties from the aggregate effect of carbon-fluorine bonds, as do all fluorocarbons. The only chemicals known to affect these carbon-fluorine bonds are certain alkali metals and most highly reactive fluorinating agents.

Polytetrafluoroethylene is best known for its use in coating non-stick frying pans and other cookware, as it is hydrophobic and possesses fairly high heat resistance.

Polytetrafluoroethylene is used for applications where sliding action of parts is needed: plain bearings, gears, slide plates, etc.

Polytetrafluoroethylene can be used to prevent insects climbing up surfaces painted with the material. PTFE is so slippery that insects cannot get a grip and tend to fall off.

Fiberglass, How to Fiberglass, Fiber Glass Uses


Fiberglass is a fiber reinforced polymer made of a plastic matrix reinforced by fine fibers of glass.

Fiberglass is a lightweight, extremely strong, and robust material. Although strength properties are somewhat lower than carbon fiber and it is less stiff, the material is typically far less brittle, and the raw materials are much less expensive. Its bulk strength and weight properties are also very favorable when compared to metals, and it can be easily formed using molding processes

Common uses of fiberglass include high performance aircraft (gliders), boats, automobiles, baths, hot tubs, water tanks, roofing, pipes, cladding, casts, surfboards and external door skins.

A fiberglass component is typically of a thin shell construction, sometimes filled on the inside with structural foam, as in the case of surfboards. The component may be of nearly arbitrary shape, limited only by the complexity and tolerances of the mold used for manufacturing the shell.

Fiberglass is an immensely versatile material which combines its light weight with an inherent strength to provide a weather resistant finish, with a variety of surface textures. It is also used in the telecommunications industry for shrouding the visual appearance of antennas, due to its RF permeability and low signal attenuation properties.

Because of fiberglass’s light weight and durability, it is often used in protective equipment, such as helmets. Many sports use fiberglass protective gear, such as modern goaltender masks and newer baseball catcher’s masks.

Fiberglass Uses

. Surfboards, tent poles
. Gliders, kit cars, sports cars, microcars, karts, bodyshells, boats, kayaks, flat roofs, lorries, K21 Infantry Fighting Vehicle.
. Minesweeper hulls
. Pods, domes and architectural features where a light weight is necessary.
. High end bicycles.
. Bodyparts for and entire automobiles, such as the Anadol, Reliant, Quantum Quantum Coupé, Chevrolet Corvette and Studebaker Avanti, and DeLorean DMC-12 under body.
. FRP tanks and vessels: FRP is used extensively to manufacture chemical equipment and tanks and vessels. BS4994 is a British standard related to this application.
. UHF-broadcasting antennas are often mounted inside a fiberglass cylinder on the pinnacle of a broadcasting tower
. Most commercial velomobiles
. Most printed circuit boards used in electronics consist of alternating layers of copper and fibreglass FR-4.
. Large Commercial wind turbine Blades

Perioral Dermatitis Causes, Treatment and Diet

Perioral Dermatitis

Perioral dermatitis is skin disease characterised by multiple small (1 – 2 mm) papules, pustules and vesicles which are localised to the perioral skin (around the mouth), nasolabial folds (around the nostrils), or perioccular area (around the eyes). It most commonly affects women between the ages of 20 and 45 years, but may also affect children, men and the elderly. It is not uncommon, and has a tendency to recur in individuals who have had it once.

Perioral dermatitis Causes

It may be asymptomatic, or may be associated with a burning, stinging sensation in the affected areas.

When periorbital dermatitis is found in otherwise healthy prepubertal children, with a profusion of grouped papules on the perioral, periocular, and perinasal areas, the condition is referred to as Granulomatous perioral dermatitis.


A diagnosis of perioral dermatitis is typically made based on the characteristics of the rash. A skin biopsy is usually not required to make the diagnosis, but can be helpful to rule out other skin diseases which may resemble it.

Other skin diseases which may resemble it include:

. Rosacea
. Acne vulgaris
. Seborrheic dermatitis
. Allergic contact dermatitis
. Irritant contact dermatitis

Perioral Dermatitis Treatment

It is a self-limited condition which will typically resolve within a few months without pharmacological therapy. However, many patients request treatment for cosmetic reasons. Topical corticosteroids should be ceased entirely when possible, or a less potent formulation used in order to slowly reduce dependency. Pharmacological therapy is usually with tetracycline antibiotics or erythromycin in children and pregnant women.

Ornish Diet, Dean Ornish Diet, Dr Dean Ornish Diet Program, Dean Ornish Diet Meal Plan

Ornish Diet | Dean Ornish Diet | Dean Ornish Program | Dr Ornish Diet

The Dr Dean Ornish Program, developed by Dean Ornish, MD, was the first diet and lifestyle program scientifically proven to reverse heart disease. The Ornish diet emphasizes the consumption of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and severely restricts the consumption of animal products, dietary fat, and refined carbohdyrates. In addition to these dietary recommendations, the Ornish Program involves comprehensive lifestyle changes including moderate aerobic exercise, stress reduction techniques, peer support, smoking cessation, and nutritional supplementation. The Dean Ornish Program has been shown to be beneficial for individuals with heart disease. The Ornish Diet, however, may be too low in calories, essential fatty acids, calcium and vitamin B12 to meet the caloric and nutrient needs of children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women.

Ornish Diet Plan | Dean Ornish Diet Plan

Consume 10% of calories as fat, with a ratio of polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat that is greater than 1
Consume 70-75% of calories as complex carbohydrates and 15-20% of calories as protein
Limit cholesterol intake to less than 5 mg per day
Consume whole grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes in unlimited quantities
Exclude all meat and dairy products, except egg whites, nonfat milk and nonfat yogurt
Eliminate caffeine from the diet and consume sugar, salt, and alcohol in moderation

Individuals following the Ornish Program are encouraged to eat whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and soybean products in unlimited quantities.

Individuals following the Ornish Program must avoid all meat and dairy products, except egg whites, nonfat milk, and nonfat yogurt. To adhere to the strict limitation on dietary fat intake, individuals on the Ornish diet must restrict the consumption of plant foods that contain high amounts of fat, including all vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and avocados. All caffeinated beverages must be eliminated, and the consumption of alcoholic beverages is discouraged.

Ornish diet Meal Plan


Oatmeal with raisins and cinnamon
Nonfat milk
Grapefruit half
Brewed tea


Buckwheat pancakes
Nonfat yogurt
Sliced bananas and kiwi
Fresh berries
Orange juice


Black bean chili
Toasted corn tortillas
Green pea “guacamole”
Tossed green sala
Fresh fruit


Tomato and lentil soup
Zucchini salad
Fresh fruit


Spanish chick-pea and garlic soup
Linguini with roasted red pepper and herbed tomato sauce
Onion confit with croutons
Watercress, fennel and orange salad
Poached pears


Polenta with tomato sauce
French lentil salad
Tossed green salad
Banana bread

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