Rhodolite Garnet Meaning, Rhodolite Garnets

Rhodolite Garnet

Rhodolite Garnet is lovely pinkish, purplish or purple-red garnet which is a mixture of Almandite and Pyrope. This rare garnet shows a wonderful velvety red with a fine purple or raspberry colored undertone.

Besides its wonderful red colors, It has additional advantages which make it a truly unique and valuable gemstone. There is its hardness of 7 – 7.5, making it suitable for any piece of jewelry. Additionally these gemstones have a high refractive index, giving them an exceptional brilliance. Even in unfavorable lighting conditionss, well cut Rhodolite garnet will sparkle vividly. The refractive index (RI), measured using a refractometer, is an indication of the amount light rays are bent by a mineral. Birefringence is the difference between the minimum and maximum RI. When birefringence is high, light rays reflect off different parts of the back of a stone causing an apparent doubling of the back facets when viewed through the front facet.

The distinctive color of Rhodolite Garnet is caused by the presence of iron and chromium. They are not as dark in color as the common Pyrope or Almandine Garnets. Most Rhodolite Garnet seen today are African in origin and are bright, transparent Gems.

Rhodolite Garnet are usually cut similar to other colored stones, with ovals, cushions, trillions and emerald cuts being most common. Other popular shapes include rounds, marquises, briolettes, hearts, cabochons and pears.

Originally found in the USA, major sources for Rhodolite Garnet Gemstones are Tanzania and North Carolina, USA. Other sources include Burma (Myanmar), Brazil, China, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), and South Africa. It helps to regenerate and stimulate cellular functioning. It can be useful when treating disorders of the heart, lungs, liver and pancreas. It can aid and balance sexual dysfunction and libido.

Angora Goat and Characteristics of Angora Goats

Angora Goat

The Angora goat is a breed of domestic goat that is named for Ankara, Turkey, historically known as Angora. Angora goats produce the lustrous fibre known as mohair.

The fleece taken from an Angora goat is called Mohair. A single goat produces between four and five kilograms of hair per year. Angora goat is shorn for wool twice a year, unlike sheep, which are shorn only once. Turkey, the United States, and South Africa are the top producers of mohair. For a long time, Angora goats were bred for their white coats. In 1998, the Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras. Now, Angora goat produce white, black (deep black to greys and silver), red (the color fades significantly as the goat gets older), and brownish fibers.

Angora goat is more susceptible to external parasites (ectoparasites) than similar animals, as their coats are denser. They are not prolific breeders, nor are they considered very hardy, being particularly delicate during the first few days of life. Further, Angoras have high nutritional requirements due to their rapid hair growth. A poor-quality diet will curtail mohair development.

The Angora goat is a small animal as compared to sheep, common goats, or milk goats. There is considerable variation in the size of goats, but mature bucks will usually fall in a weight range of from 180 to 225 pounds but do not reach their maximum weight until after five years of age. Does will fall in a weight range of from 70 to 110 pounds when mature.

Modern Angora goat are often classified according to the type of ringlet or lock hair in which the hair grows. Ringlet type goats are often referred to as the C Type, while B Type is used to designate those with a flat mohair lock. In the case of the ringlet type goat, the mohair is carried in tight ringlets throughout almost its entire length and represents the finest mohair produced. The flat lock, in contrast, is usually wavy and more bulky in appearance.

The most valuable characteristic of the Angora goat as compared to other goats is the value of the mohair that is clipped. The average Angora goat in the U.S. shears approximately 5.3 pounds of mohair per shearing and are usually sheared twice a year. They produce a fiber with a staple length of between 12 and 15cm.

Deliming, What is Deliming, Deliming Agents, Types

Deliming | Leather Deliming
What is Deliming | Deliming Agents

The deliming operation in leather processing is a drum/paddle or pit based operation where two main objectives are met:

Removal of alkali from the pelt and the consequent deswelling of the fibres.

Lowering of the liquor pH to the values used in the bating process.

Deliming operations of cattle hides usually last 2 hours and are generally associated with the alkaline phase of beamhouse operations. The progress of deliming in pelts is monitored by the checking of pH values of process liquors and in the cutting of a pelt cross-section. Phenolphthalein is used to monitor deliming pelt cross-sectional progress.
Removal of pelt alkali and deswelling

As an acid is added it lowers the pH value of the internal pelt solution. This neutralizes the solution alkalinity. The lowering of the pH results in rapid protonation of the collagen basic groups.

Lowering of liquor pH

The acid present in the deliming agents neutralizes the process liquor pH. Typical values after effective, thorough deliming will range from 6 to 9. Ammonium salt deliming pH values should be pH 8 to 9.
Deliming types

The deliming process can be done with acids that can be rapid in their pH adjustment. Buffering salts like ammonium salts predominated the 20th century. Ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride can be used as deliming agents and they follow the following chemistry:

(NH4)SO4 → NH4+ (ammonium) + SO42- (sulfate)

The ammonium ion is then free to penetrate the pelt cross-section and further ionise to act as an acid:

NH4+ (ammonium) + H2O → NH3 (ammonia) + H3O+ (hydronium)

The protons can then serve two functions, namely to protonate basic groups of the collagen and neutralize solution alkali chemicals.Other weak acids can be used such as boric acid. acetic, formic, lactic acid, Phosphoric Acid and carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is used in a deliming process called carbon dioxide deliming. Strong acids such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid can also be used but their use is limited.

How Rawhide is Made, What is Rawhide, Define, Definition, Meaning

What is Rawhide | Defien Rawhide | Rawhide Definition | Rawhide Meaning

Rawhide is a hide or animal skin that has not been exposed to tanning. It is similar to parchment, much lighter in color than leather made by traditional vegetable tanning.

The skin from buffalo, deer, elk or cattle from which most rawhide originates is prepared by removing all fur, meat and fat. The hide is then usually stretched over a frame before being dried. The resulting material is hard and translucent. It can be shaped by rewetting and forming before being allowed to thoroughly re-dry. It can be rendered more pliable by ‘working’, i.e. bending repeatedly in multiple directions, often by rubbing it over a post, sometimes traditionally by chewing. It may also be oiled or greased for a degree of waterproofing.
How Rawhide is Made

Rawhide is made by scraping the skin thin, soaking it in lime, and then stretching it while it dries. Like alum-tanning, rawhide is not technically “leather”, but is usually lumped in with the other forms. Rawhide is stiffer and more brittle than other forms of leather, and is primarily found in uses such as drum heads where it does not need to flex significantly; it is also cut up into cords for use in lacing or stitching, or for making many varieties of dog chews.

It is often used for objects such as whips, drumheads or lampshades, and more recently chew toys for dogs. It is thought to be more durable than leather, especially in items suffering abrasion during use, and its hardness and shapability render it more suitable than leather for some items.

For example, rawhide is often used to cover saddle trees, which make up the foundation of a western saddle, while wet: it strengthens the wooden tree by drawing up very tight as it dries, and resists the abrasion regularly encountered during stock work or rodeo sports. It can also be used as a backing on a wooden bow. Such a backing prevents the bow from breaking by taking a share of the tension stress. Bows made from weaker woods such as birch or cherry benefit more from a rawhide backing. Rawhide is, however more susceptible to water than leather, and will quickly soften and stretch if left wet unless well waterproofed. It is quite effective when used for training dogs and also satisfies their natural desire for meat.Many vets are beginning to discourage the giving of rawhide to their dogs due to various problems; inability to digest the rawhide properly, swelling in the stomach. Wet rawhide has been used by some earlier cultures as a means of torture or execution, gradually biting into or squeezing the flesh of body parts it encloses as it dries. An example is buskin.

Flammability Test, Burn Test, Why Burning Test

Flammability Test, Burn Test

Flammability Test or Burn Test is performed to know how easily something will burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion. The degree of difficulty required to cause the combustion of a substance is quantified through Flammability Test. Internationally, a variety of test protocols exist to quantify flammability test.

Flammability Test – Cotton Burn Test

Cotton is a plant fiber. When ignited it burns with a steady flame and smells like burning leaves. The ash left is easily crumbled. Small samples of burning cotton can be blown out as you would a candle.

Flammability Test – Linen Burn Test

Linen is also a plant fiber but different from cotton in that the individual plant fibers which make up the yarn are long where cotton fibers are short. Linen takes longer to ignite. The fabric closest to the ash is very brittle. Linen is easily extinguished by blowing on it as you would a candle.

Flammability Test – Silk Burn Test

Silk is a protein fiber and usually burns readily, not necessarily with a steady flame, and smells like burning hair. The ash is easily crumbled. Silk samples are not as easily extinguished as cotton or linen.

Flammability Test – Wool Burn Test

Wool is also a protein fiber but is harder to ignite than silk as the individual hair fibers are shorter than silk and the weave of the fabrics is generally looser than with silk. The flame is steady but more difficult to keep burning. The smell of burning wool is like burning hair.

Flammability Test – Man Made Fibers Burn Tests

Flammability Test – Acetate

Acetate is made from cellulose (wood fibers), technically cellulose acetate. Acetate burns readily with a flickering flame that cannot be easily extinguished. The burning cellulose drips and leaves a hard ash. The smell is similar to burning wood chips.

Flammability Test – Acrylic

Acrylic technically acrylonitrile is made from natural gas and petroleum. Acrylics burn readily due to the fiber content and the lofty, air filled pockets. A match or cigarette dropped on an acrylic blanket can ignite the fabric which will burn rapidly unless extinguished. The ash is hard. The smell is acrid or harsh.

Nylon Burn Test

Nylon is a polyamide made from petroleum. Nylon melts and then burns rapidly if the flame remains on the melted fiber. If you can keep the flame on the melting nylon, it smells like burning plastic.

Polyester Burn Test

Polyester is a polymer produced from coal, air, water, and petroleum products. Polyester melts and burns at the same time, the melting, burning ash can bond quickly to any surface it drips on including skin. The smoke from polyester is black with a sweetish smell. The extinguished ash is hard.

Flammability Test – Rayon Burn Test

Rayon is a regenerated cellulose fiber which is almost pure cellulose. Rayon burns rapidly and leaves only a slight ash. The burning smell is close to burning leaves.


Blends consist of two or more fibers and, ideally, are supposed to take on the characteristics of each fiber in the blend. The burning test can be used but the fabric content will be an assumption.

Raw Food Diet, Raw Food Diet Benefits, Raw Food Diet Recipes, Raw Food Diet Menu Plan, How to Prepare Raw Foods

Raw Foodism | Raw Food Diet | Raw Food Diets | Raw Food Diet Benefits

The raw food diet is based on the belief that the most healthful food for the body is uncooked. Although most food is eaten raw, heating food is acceptable as long as the temperature stays below 104 to 118 degrees Fahrenheit (the cutoff temperature varies among those in the raw food community).

Cooking is thought to denature the enzymes naturally present in food. According to raw foodists, enyzymes are the life force of a food, helping us to digest food and absorb nutrients. If we overconsume cooked food, our bodies are forced to work harder by producing more enzymes. Over time, a lack of enzymes from food is thought to lead to digestive problems, nutrient deficiency, accelerated aging, and weight gain.

Cooking food can diminish its nutritional value. For example, the cancer-fighting compounds in broccoli, sulforaphanes, are greatly reduced when broccoli is cooked. Certain vitamins, such as vitamin C and folate, are destroyed by heat. Other foods, however, become more healthful after cooking, because the fibrous portion is broken down. For example, cooked tomatoes contain three to four times more lycopene than raw tomatoes.

Cooking also promotes the formation of potentially harmful compounds in food during high heat cooking, such as advanced glycation end products and heterocyclic amines.

Raw Food Diet Plan | Raw Food Diet Recipes | Raw Food Diet Menu

There are different ways that people follow a raw food diet. Most people who follow a raw food diet are vegan. Some consume raw animal products, such as raw milk, cheese made from raw milk, sashimi, ceviche (raw fish), or carpaccio (raw meat). Some people eat only raw foods, while others include cooked food for variety and convenience. The percentage of raw food is usually 70 percent or more of the diet.

How to Prepare Raw Foods

Soaking and Sprouting

Raw beans, legumes, nuts, and seeds contain enzyme inhibitors that are normally destroyed with cooking. The nutrients can be released by soaking them (germination) or sprouting them.

Germination involves soaking in water for a specific amount of time. Although the recommended germination times vary from 2 hours (for cashews) up to one day (for mung beans), some raw foodists say that soaking overnight is sufficient and more convenient. It’s important to start with dried, raw, preferably organic seeds, beans, legumes, or nuts.

Rinse beans, nuts, legumes, or seeds and place in a glass container. Add room temperature purified water to cover and soak at room temperature overnight. Mung beans, however, require a full 24 hours. Rinse a couple of times prior to use.


After germination, seeds, beans, and legumes can be sprouted. After they are drained during the final step of the germination process, place them in a container for sprouting. Leave them at room temperature for the recommended time. The seed, bean, or legume will open and a sprout will grow from it. Rinse the sprouted nuts or seeds and drain well. They can be stored in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to 5 days.


Foods can be heated, never above 118 F, using a piece of equipment called a dehydrator to simulate sundrying. They are enclosed containers with heating elements to warm at low temperatures. A fan inside the dehydrator blows the warm air across the food, which is spread out on trays. Dehydrators can be used to make raisins, sundried tomatoes, kale chips, crackers, breads, croutons, and fruit leathers.


Foods can be blended or chopped using a food processor or blender, to make recipes for smoothies, pesto, soup, hummus.

Flaxseed Oil Benefits, Weight Loss,Flax Oil Info

Flaxseed Oil Benefits

Flaxseed Oil Benefits – It has been found to be beneficial for those who suffer from Crohn’s Disease and Colitis. It is beneficial in helping to reduce high cholesterol. The risk of heart disease is lower in individuals who take flaxseed oil.

Flaxseed Oil Benefits – It contains alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), a precursor to the essential omega-3 fatty acid that partly and inefficiently converts into DHA and EPA in the body. It lowers cholesterol levels.

Flaxseed Oil Benefits – Like fish oil it has been studied for lowering triglycerides. However, it is necessary to ingest a lot of flaxseed oil (38-60 grams) to have any noticeable effects.

Flaxseed Oil Benefits – It provides protection against breast cancer, prostate cancer and colon cancer. Flaxseeds contain Lignans, which provide protection against cancers that are sensitive to hormones.

Lignans also blocks the enzymes that are involved in hormone metabolism and inhibits the growth of the tumor cells.

Flaxseed Oil Benefits – Due to its anti-inflammatory properties, flaxseed oil can be used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disorders like Crohn’s disease and colitis. Crohn’s disease is caused due to the deficiency of omega-3s, thus regular intake of flaxseed oil can cure the disease.

Flaxseed Oil Benefits – It is rich in fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, which give you healthy hair. Regular application of flaxseed oil promotes hair growth and prevents additional hair fall. It eliminates dandruff and flakiness on the scalp. Flaxseed oil also maintains the moisture content in the hair, keeping your hair lustrous and healthy.

Rib Knit Fabric, Ribbed Knit Uses and How to Knit Ribbing

Rib Knit Fabric

Rib Knit Fabric is perfect for creating stylish t-shirts, tops, cardigans, children’s clothing, lounge wear.

It is a garment produced using a style of knitting pattern which yields a distinct vertically ridged pattern known as ribbing. There are a number of advantages over a straight stockinette stitch which make the rib knit a popular choice for everything from socks to sweaters. The rib knit fabric combines two basic stitches, the knit and the purl, and is very easy to make. Many knitters learn the rib stitch early on in their crafting careers as a result, and many garment manufacturers integrate it for visual variation and sturdiness.

When a rib knit is created, it is made by alternating strips of stockinette stitch and reverse stockinette. A stockinette stitch is a classic knitted stitch, which resembles a small pattern of Vs running through a garment. If you are wearing a knit garment right now, you can probably look down and see an example of stockinette stitch. Reverse stockinette is exactly what it sounds like. Many knitters call stockinette the right or knit side, and reverse stockinette the wrong or purl side.

To produce a flat swatch of stockinette stitch, a knitter knits on one row and purls on the next, knitting on what will become the right side and purling on the wrong side. The end result is a sturdy, durable knit, but it has a tendency to curl at the edges. This can be especially annoying with scarves, which may slowly become almost tubular over time. Therefore, many people prefer a rib knit fabric, which does not curl.

Moonstone Properties, Healing and Metaphysical

Moonstone Properties

Moonstone Properties – Moonstone is the opalescent variety of Orthoclase, which is an alkai feldspar, with a blue or white sheen, referred to as a schiller, rather like the shine of the moon, hence it’s name. The sheen is created by the reflection of light from the internal structure of layers. The layers are thin albite that give the attractive blue, while thicker layers feldspar produce the white color.

Moonstone aids the digestive system, assimilates nutrients, eliminates toxins and fluid retention, and alleviates degenerative conditions of skin, hair, eyes, and fleshy organs such as the liver and pancreas.

It stimulates the pineal gland and balances hormonal cycles, being excellent for PMS, conception, pregnancy, childbirth, and breast-feeding. Moonstone is also beneficial to men in opening the emotional self.

Moonstone can act as a growth stone for children and teenagers, and has been thought to slow the degeneration of the elderly.

Moonstone is especially calming to children. It soothes those away from home at night, drives away nightmares and encourages sleep. It is also used to treat sleepwalking

It is a good digestive aid. Moonstone also soothes and balances the emotions. Moonstone is believed to be protective for women and babies. It`s also associated with the sea and planting cycles. Moonstone is said to balance yin and yang. In India, moonstone is regarded as a sacred stone. It is believed to bring good fortune. Legend says that Moonstone is a highly prized gift for lovers as it arouses tender passion.

Yarn Winding, Filament Winding Process

Yarn Winding

Ring spinning produces yarn in a package form called cops. Since cops from ring frames are not suitable for further processing, the yarn winding process serves to achieve additional objectives made necessary by the requirements of the subsequent processing stages.

Yarn winding process can be defined as the transfer of spinning yarn from one package to another package (cone, spool, pirn).

Yarn Winding Process

  • Extraction of all disturbing yarn faults such as the short, long thick ,long thin, spinners doubles, etc
  • Manufacture of cones having good drawing – off properties and with as long a length of yarn as possible.
  • Paraffin waxing of the yarn during the winding process
  • Introduction into the yarn of a minimum number of knots
  • Achievement of a high machine efficiency i.e high production level.

The winding process therefore has the basic function of obtaining a larger package from several small ring bobbins. This conversion process provides one with the possibility of cutting out unwanted and problematic objectionable faults. The process of removing such objectionable faults is called as yarn clearing.

Practical experience has proven that yarn winding alters the yarn structure.This phenomenon does not affect yarn evenness, but affect the following yarn properties.

  • Thick Places
  • Thin Places
  • Neps
  • Hairiness
  • Standard Deviation of Hairiness.

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