Bikini History Overview and Information

Bikini History

The Bikini History can be traced to antiquity. Women wore two-piece bikini-like garments in illustrations found at the Chalcolithic site of Çatalhoyuk. Illustrations found in Ancient Greece as far back as 1400 BC show women wearing a two-piece garment during athletic events.

Bikini History – In the Chalcolithic era around 5600 BC, the mother-goddess of Çatalhoyuk, a large ancient settlement in southern Anatolia, was depicted astride two leopards wearing a costume somewhat like a bikini. Two-piece garments worn by women for athletic purposes are depicted on Greek urns and paintings dating back to 1400 BC. Active women of ancient Greece wore a breastband called a mastodeton or an apodesmos, which continued to be used as an undergarment in the Middle Ages. While men in ancient Greece abandoned the perizoma, partly high-cut briefs and partly loincloth, women performers and acrobats continued to wear it.

Bikini History In 1907, Australian swimmer and performer Annette Kellerman was arrested on a Boston beach for wearing a form-fitting sleeveless one-piece knitted swimming tights that covered her from neck to toe, a costume she adopted from England, although it became accepted swimsuit attire for women in parts of Europe by 1910

Bikini History By the 1930s, necklines plunged at the back, sleeves disappeared and sides were cut away.

Bikini History – Two-piece swimsuits without the usual skirt panel and other superfluous material started appearing in the US when the government ordered a 10% reduction in fabric used in woman’s swimwear in 1943 as wartime rationing.

Bikini History – Swimwear of the 1940s, 50s and early 60s followed the silhouette mostly from early 1930s. Keeping in line with the ultra-feminine look dominated by Dior, it evolved into a dress with cinched waists and constructed bustlines, accessorized with earrings, bracelets, hats, scarves, sunglasses, hand bags and cover-ups.

Bikini History – The modern bikini was introduced by French engineer Louis Reard and separately by fashion designer Jacques Heim in Paris in 1946. It comprised two pieces, the bottom large enough to cover its wearer’s navel. In May 1946, he advertised it as the world’s smallest bathing suit. Reard sliced the top off the bottoms and advertised it as smaller than the smallest swimsuit. The idea struck him when he saw women rolling up their beachwear to get a better tan.

Bikini History – By the end of the century, the bikini went on to become the most popular beachwear around the globe and By the early 2000s, bikinis had become a US$811 million business annually.

Apricot Fruits, Nutrition, Health Benefits, Where to Buy, Uses, Side Effects

Apricot | Apricots Nutrition | Apricot Fruits

Fresh, ripe apricots have sweet flavor similar to plums. Apricots are excellent sources of vitamin-A and carotenes. Sun dried organic fruits have concentrated nutrient levels than fresh ones although they are lesser in vitamin-C content.

Seeds are also edible and taste like that of almonds. Oil extracted from the seeds has been used for cooking purpose.

Health Benefits of Apricots

  • Fresh fruits are low in calories; but are rich source of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. They are packed with numerous health promoting phyto-chemicals; that helps prevent heart disease, reduce LDL, (bad cholesterol) levels and offers protection against cancers.
  • Apricots are excellent sources of vitamin-A and carotenes. Both of these compounds are known to have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision. Vitamin-A is also required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in carotenes helps protect body from lung and oral cavity cancers.
  • Fresh fruits contain vitamin-C, another natural anti-oxidant. Vitamin C helps body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen free radicals.
  • They are also good source of minerals such as potassium, iron, zinc, calcium and manganese. Potassium is a heart-healthy mineral; an important component of cell and body fluids that helps control heart rate and blood pressure.
  • The total anti-oxidant or ORAC value of raw apricots is 1115 umol TE/100 g. Much of this in these fruits comes from some important health promoting flavonoid poly phenolic anti-oxidants such as lutein, zeaxanthin and beta cryptoxanthins. Altogether these compounds act as protective scavengers against oxygen-derived free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a role in aging, cancers and various disease process.
  • Zeaxanthin, a carotenoid selectively absorbed into the retinal macula lutea in the eyes where it is thought to provide anti-oxidant and protective light-filtering functions. Thus, consumption of fruits like apricots rich in zeaxanthin helps eyes protect from age-related macular disease (AMRD), especially in the elderly people.

Where to Buy Apricots

Apricot season lasts from May till September. Buy fresh fruits that feature uniform golden-orange color and rich flavor and firm or yield slightly to thumb pressure.

Avoid those with pale yellow color as they were picked too soon. Ripened apricots are delicate and should be handled with care.

Store them in the refrigerator in egg tray. Use them as early as possible.

Apricots Uses

Wash fresh fruits gently in cold water and pat dry in soft cloth. Ripe ones can be eaten as a whole including skin to get the maximum benefits.

  • Sliced sections of the fruit can be a great addition to salads.
  • They are also used jam, syrup and jelly preparation.
  • Sun dried organic fruits can be used like raisins in verities of dishes.

Apricot Side Effects

Dried apricots are often treated with sulfites to extend their shelf life by preventing oxidation and bleaching of colors, as in the case of other dried fruits like figs. Sulfite treated bright orange colored fruits can cause acute serious bronchospasm in sensitized people who are suffering from asthma episodes. Therefore, sulfite sensitive persons can instead safely use unsulfured dried fruits that have brown color.

Suman Prabha Lakra Resume – Textile Designer

DATE OF BIRTH: 1st oct.1991
MOBILE NO: 9094342027

My objective is to seek a distinctive position in a ‘textile & clothing’ industry that will grant me a position in creative environment and accelerate my designing skills and punch me to grow as a professional.

 Undergone as a trainee in a two months Industrial textile Internship under the company Indian Emporium, Hyderabad and worked under Designer Gaurang Shah.
 Graduation project: worked as a visual merchandiser and interior
Designer in level next-a unit of M.A Jacob’s carpets & furnishings
 Textile Designer at Atlantic Fabrics,Karur


 Good hand at creating print patterns(screen & digital)
 Strong surface manipulation skills
 Good understanding of weaves(jacquard & dobby)
 Can create designs understanding the market and trend analysis
 Strong conception & visualisation
 Well equipped in handling diverse medium like water colours, pencil colours, charcoal, oil pastels
 Eye for colour sensibility and textures
 Advanced Digital Photography
 Documentation & Presentation

 Strong time management & communication skill
 Excellent follow up & completion of task
 Team player with good interpersonal skill
 Good idea of marketing and management
 Sample co-ordination
 Professional ethics

DATE OF BIRTH: 1st oct.1991
MOBILE NO: 9094342027


Well equipped with softwares:
 MS Office
 Adobe Photoshop
 Corel Draw
 Textronics,
 Ned Graphics
 Adobe Flash
 Texcelle
 Nedgraphics


 Active participant and winner in quiz, debate & elecution during school level.
 Designed the cover page for the college CONVERGE report
 Core volunteer in the NIFT Spectrum Committee.


 Classical Dance performed in college functions like college fest, annual function.
 Participant of state level science exhibition.
 Participant of state level dance competition
 Member of college kabbadi and throw ball team

Two weeks craft Research & Documentation at Kumbakonam ,Tamil Nadu,learnt about temple appliqué ,techniques, process,did a design intervention in the form of products and a document to uplift the
Languishing craft.

Industrial visits to industries like Anglo-French Textiles, Concorde Textiles

Gender: female
Age: 22
Personal skills: positive attitude, punctual, efficient
Languages known: English, Hindi, Oriya, Bengali, Tamil.
Contact Address:Atlantic fabrics
Amaravathi nagar
Andankoil post

Hair Type, and Types of Hair Shapes

Hair Type

The range of different hair type is enormous, ranging from tight wiry curls to ruler-straight. The color and shape of hair vary too.

The Hair Type you have is inherited from your parents. We may look back further, and say that it is determined by the part of the world in which your ancestors originated. It all depends on the race, or mixture of races, from which they came. In the very earliest days of human evolution, three basic racial groups of people seem to have existed on this planet. These spread out across the world and became mixed together. They are especially well mixed in countries where there has been massive immigration, such as the U.S.A. over the last few hundred years.

Scientists have identified three basic hair types in today’s human population, and have related them to these three early races. Asian, Caucasoid and African. The three types of hair not only look quite different, but the differences in their responses to physical and chemical damage can be remarkable.

Hair Type – Asian Hair

Asian Hair people are from the Orient, for example from China and Japan. Their hair is very straight, and always black in color.

Hair Type – Caucasoid Hair

The Caucasoid group is the most ‘varied’ of the three racial groups. Modern Caucasoids are very varied, even though they are descended from the same group of ancestors. They range from the fair-skinned people of north-west Europe to the widely varying peoples of the Indian subcontinent. Caucasoid Hair may be either wavy or straight, and the diameter varies widely too. The color ranges from black to a pale blond that is almost white, including just about every possible shade in between.

Hair Type – African Hair

African people originated in Africa. African hair is black and tightly curled. It tends to be woolly and dry, and is extremely easily damaged by heat or chemicals.

Subway Diet, Diet Menu, Diet Plan, Does the Subway Diet Work

Subway Diet

The Subway Diet was popularised by Jared Fogle who lost 245 pounds by eating only subway sandwiches for a year. The Subway is basically a low fat diet, which works because you consume fewer calories than you use. There is no cheese, mayonnaise or oil allowed on any of the subs. Below is what Jared Fogle ate for a year to lose 245 pounds
Subway Diet Menu | Subway Diet Plan

A six-inch turkey sub, no mayo, no oil and a bag of baked potato chips.
A foot long veggie sub.
Unlimited diet soda through the day.
Does the Subway Diet Work

The benefits of the Subway diet start with convenience. The dieter buys prepared food, knowing that is low in fat and calories. Subway provides nutritional information, and the dieter doesn’t need to purchase, clean, and cut vegetables. The weight-loss plan is based on portion control, and the dieter eats vegetables, bread, and turkey. Lean meats like poultry, vegetables, and grains.

Employee Training and Development Overview

Employee Training and Development

Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees:

  • When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed
  • To benchmark the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort
  • As part of an overall professional development program
  • As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization
  • To pilot, or test, the operation of a new performance management system
  • To train about a specific topic.

Employee Training and Development – Training Methods for Employees

Employee Communication Training

The increasing diversity of today’s workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs.

Employee Computer Training

Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks.

Employee Customer Service Training

Increased competition in today’s global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers.

Employee Training and Development – Employee Diversity Training

Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity.

Employee Ethics Training

Today’s society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today’s diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace.

Employee Training and Development – Human Relations

The increased stresses of today’s workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace.

Quality Initiatives

Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc.

Employee Safety training

Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment , hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc.

Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organization’s policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate behaviors.

Benefits from Employee Training and Development

The reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons include:

  • Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees
  • Increased employee motivation
  • Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain
  • Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods
  • Employee Training and Development – Increased innovation in strategies and products
  • Reduced employee turnover
  • Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training
  • Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training

African Textiles History and Information

African Textiles

African textiles are a part of African cultural heritage that came to America along with the slave trade. As many slaves were skilled in the weaving, this skill was used as another form of income for the slave owner.

In most of African textiles the weavers were men while the women spun the thread. The weavers in many of the countries were part of a caste-like group and sometimes slaves to noble families. In Yoruba compounds were used where master weavers would teach all the boys weaving and all the girls would learn to spin and dye the yarn. And children did some jobs too, like providing fabric and also weaved at a very young age of 4.

Some examples of African textiles are

. Aso oke fabric – woven by Yoruba people
. Adire- tie-dye produced by Yoruba people
. Kente cloth – woven by Ashanti and Ewe people
. Barkcloth – produced by the Buganda tribe
. Mudcloth- produced by the Bambara tribe
. Kitenge – produced from Kenya and other regions of East Africa

Weaving and the textiles were and still are very important to the African culture. The African textiles included both men and women and the cloth they made was unique to their tribe through the patterns and spiritual meanings behind them. the designs also had aztec designs in Many centuries ago, hair from animals was woven to insulate and protect homes. Hair, along with fibers from various plants and trees, were used to create bedding, blankets, clothing, and wall, window and door hangings. As textiles became more sophisticated, they were also used as currency for trading. Many of the ancient designs and weaving methods are used today and remain an important part of African lifestyles.

The main method of decorating cloth throughout Africa is the dyeing of thread or completed cloths. Although there were a small range of locally produced plant dyes that allowed weavers in most areas to produce a few shades of brown, green, yellow, and in some cases red, by far the most important dye in Africa has been indigo. The vast majority of African textiles produced on the continent over the centuries was simple designs produced by combining the natural white (and sometimes beige) of the cotton fibers with stripes of various shades of indigo blue. Depending on the relative density of the warp and weft threads, the resulting cloths could have stripes down the strip (warp- faced) or across the strip (weft-faced.)They mostly wore the skin of the animal and some times wove the fur into a peace of clothing.

Leather&Footwear Buying Houses in United Kingdom

Leather&Footwear Buying Houses in United Kingdom

E-Leather Limited

Contact Person:Mr.David Ackerman

Address:Kingsbridge CentreSturrock Way



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1733-843 939

Fax:+44-1733-843 940

Footcover Limited

Contact Person:David G. Smith

Address:90 Derby Road



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1246-555 356

Chancery Footwear Limited

Contact Person:Andrew Woodford

Address:Unit 86, Bunting Road


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1604-712 159

Fax:+44-1604-722 397

ANC Designs Limited

Contact Person:Mr. Anthony Kyriacou

Address:Unit 2, Chaseside WorksChelmsford Road


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-208-882 9083

Chester Jefferies Limited

Contact Person:Mr. Greg Pearce

Address:Buckingham Road



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1747-822 629

Fax:+44-1747-824 092


Contact Person:Andrew Kara

Address:31 Astley



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1375-393 270

Musty Leather

Contact Person:Mr. Yacine Mouhi

Address:19 Blackmore HouseBarnsbury Estate


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-78-3348 8821

Future Designs Leather Limited

Contact Person:Fardeen Chowdhry

Address:82 Dunbridge Street


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-0207-729 6145

Fax:+44-0207-729 8290

Haq International

Contact Person:Mr. Faizan

Address:Unit 116, Cremer Business Centre37 Cremer Shoreditch


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-779-515 4920

Joseph Clayton & Sons Limited

Contact Person:Ms. Claire Silcock

Address:Clayton Street Tannery,



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1246-232 863

Fax:44-1246-207 807

Bishops Footwear Limited

Contact Person:Mr. Steven

Address:15-16 The Diamond,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-2870-342 465

Fax:44-2870-342 414

Boss Shoes Limited

Contact Person:Mr. Michael Chrysostomou

Address:1/3 Rosemary Place,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-2072-545 047

Fax:44-2072-499 406

Hi-tec Sports Plc

Contact Person:Ms. Helen Durant

Address:Aviation Way,Southend on Sea,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1702-541 741

Fax:44-1702-547 947

10 Tenths Limited

Contact Person:Ms. Cynthia Williams

Address:166 Ovaltine Court,Ovaltine Drive,

City:Kings Langley


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-845-643 1723

Fax:44-845-643 1724


Contact Person:Maxilo Lee

Address:Hevoke Street,



Country : United Kingdom


Fenland Sheepskin Company Limited

Contact Person:Mr. Tinnion

Address:Axe Road,Colley Lane Industrial Estate,



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1278-427 586

Fax:44-1278-444 165

Esme Ertekin

Contact Person:Ms. Esme

Address:11 Manchester Road,



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1565-621 790

Fax:44-1565-621 806

William Lamb Footwear Limited

Contact Person:Ms. Dedorah Brooke

Address:Bottom Boat Road, Stanley,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1924-820 282

Fax:44-1924-836 936

Wilfords Shoes

Contact Person:Ms. Tina

Address:1 Brook Street,Whetstone, Leicester,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-116-275 1515

Fax:44-116-275 0205

Shoe Design & Trade Limited

Contact Person:Mr. Shah

Address:12 Cumberland Avenue,Park Royal,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-208-838 5050

Fax:44-208-838 5252

Shalimar Shoes Uk Limited

Contact Person:Ms. Reshma

Address:The Movement House,Ajax Works,Hertford Road,



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-208-591 7111

Fax:44-208-591 7224

Rainbow Club Limited

Contact Person:Ms. Amenda

Address:Hennock Court,Marsh Barton,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1392-207 040

Fax:44-1392-207 045

NPS Shoes Limited

Contact Person:Mr. Mark

Address:17 South Street, Wollaston, Wellingborough,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1933-664 207

Fax:44-1933-664 699

Lexx Moda

Contact Person:Ms. Linda

Address:19, Colling Wood,Bussiness Peanta Lower,Harding Street,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-7984-101 160

Jeffery West & Company Limited

Contact Person:Ms. Stacy

Address:22 Stockley Street,Northampton,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1604-602 075

Fax:44-1604-638 534

Georgina Goodman Limited

Contact Person:Ms. Rebecca

Address:12/14 Shepherd Street,Mayfair,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-207-499 8599

Fax:44-207-499 8598

Florida Group Limited

Contact Person:Ms. Ncsad Yen

Address:Dibden Road,



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1603-426 341

Fax:44-1603-424 354

Emotion Shoes Limited

Contact Person:Mr. Mark Turner / Mr. Neil

Address:48 Earlsway,Teeside Industrial Estate ,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1642-807 090

Fax:44-1642-652 299

Alfred Sargent and Sons Limited

Contact Person:Mr.Sargent

Address:Portland Road,Rushden,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-1933-312 065

Fax:44-1933-410 207


Address:11 Barrets Green Road,Park Royal,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-20-8453 1000

Fax:+44-20-8838 1222

London Rebel

Address:Unit 6, The Io Centre,Lea Road, Waltham Abbey,

City:Lea Valley

Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1992-710 444

Fax:+44-1992-711 223

Kidderminster Footwear Limited

Address:New Road Complex,Worcestershire,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1562-744 022

Fax:+44-1562-515 343

Davina Fashion Shoes

Address:Unit 7 Kingside,Ruston Road,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-20-8316 6842

Fax:+44-20-8316 6549


Contact Person:Michael Lambourne

Address:Pearl Accesseries Limited,147 Hights Street,

City:Hull Wyorkshire

Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1482-334 590

Fax:+44-1482-334 591

Wenzhou Bulanni Shoes Company

Contact Person:Mr. Bilal Rana

Address:215 Wigan Road Lancs



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:0044-1204-655435, 7789303040


Passion Sports Limited

Address:105 High Street,Edgware,Middlesex,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-20-8952 6111

Fax:+44-20-8952 6222

Fluke Footwear

Address:31 Royal Star Arcade,Kent,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1622-609 700

Fax:+44-1622-752 275

Central Trade Limited

Address:The Natural Shoe Store,1 Addison Bridge Place,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-20-7371 `6554

Fax:+44-20-7602 2085

Avion (Leather Goods) Limited

Address:Mark or Meryl Arnold,

City:East Grinstead

Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1342-832 709

Fax:+44-1342-835 551


Contact Person:Mr. Vinod Bhudia

Address:56 Clifton Avenue



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:44-0208-9031194 , 7960666345


Ruby + Ed

Address:5 Burrough Court, Burrough on the Hill, Leicestershire,

City:Melton Mowbray

Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1664-452 906

Ceci Tokyo

Address:K.Fashion(United Knigdom) Limited,51, Great Portland St,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-20-7636 2792

Fax:+44-20-7636 2793

Shanghai Longteng Trade Company

Contact Person:Ms. lucy pickles

Address:24 Barnes St


State:Lancashire England

Country : United Kingdom

Phone:0044-7765-403311 , 447765403311


Moda In Pelle Limited

Address:Education Road,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-870-410 1001


Address:3, Hauxton Road,Trumpington,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1223-721 664

Fax:+44-1223-722 673

Remys International

Address:88 90, Commercial Road,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-20-7481 2061

Modalu London

Contact Person:Naima Chamberlayne

Address:20 Broadway Chambers,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-845-258 2426

Fax:+44-20-8563 2207

Zapatos Espanoles

Address:14 Henrietta Villas,


Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1225-461 279

Fax:+44-7870-175 149


Contact Person:

Address:Pixton GreenAshwickWiltshire



Country : United Kingdom

Phone:+44-1225-859 959, 852 732

Organza Overview and Silk Organza Uses


Organza is a thin, plain weave, sheer fabric traditionally made from silk. Many modern organza is woven with synthetic filament fibers such as polyester or nylon. Silk organza is woven by a number of mills along the Yangtze River and in the province of Zhejiang in China. A coarser silk organza is woven in the Bangalore area of India. Deluxe silk organza are woven in France and Italy.

Organza is used for bridal wear and evening wear. In the interiors market it is used for effects in bedrooms and between rooms. Double-width organza in viscose and acetate are used as sheer curtains. A slightly looser variation on the weave will result in sheer looking fabric. One of silk organza main uses is in the creation of wedding dresses with special wedding attire and uptown evening fashions.

A very sheer, crisp fabric that is strong and durable with a firm hand and a flat, smooth texture. The open weave is naturally stiff without the addition of any stiffeners, so great for specific use in wedding garments, petticoats, costuming, lampshade work, interfacing, etc. Readily accepts and reflects strong, brilliant colors. Easy to dye but resists dye spreading, making it difficult for watercolor type techniques but easy for direct painting without guttas with minimum wicking.

Leather Stamping Tools, How to Stamp Leather

Leather Stamping

Leather Stamping is one of the go to customization options when it comes to leather products. The tools used are easily attainable and do not require much work or knowledge to use.

Stamping, Cold Stamping and Punching – This technique requires use of a hammer and cold metal irons to fashion a pattern or impress an image into a leather surface. As a popular stamping method, this technique is especially helpful in producing repetition of one motif or compositional element.

Blind Stamping – This type of impression design in leather is accomplished with the use of metal stamps that are heated. It is especially effective for leather book covers and bag surfaces that are fashioned from thin pieces of leather.

Veining and Creasing – With use of veining and creasing, leather crafting experts can create unique decorative edges and borders on leather pieces and leather items such as flight bags. This design technique has similarities to blind stamping since heated metal stamps are used in both design methods. Sometimes leather designers use wooden tools instead, pressing and rubbing the tools into the leather surface to create lines and shapes.

Cuerro Gofrado – This leather stamping method is also related to blind stamping. Originating in Spain and Italy, this leather styling technique creates a high-relief or many-layered result that can be quite intricate, whether bold or delicate. By pressing a leather piece or strip over a hot metal patterned plate, a unique design from the most simple to the most complex and sophisticated can be made.

Pyrogravure or Poker Art – In this form of leather design, leather surfaces are burned with white hot metal tools. On some light leathers, a soldering iron with a narrow tip is used. This decorative technique originated in Europe and was used extensively from around 700 to 1200 B.C. It became a favorite leather working method of the Vikings, especially for their leather helmets, breast plates and shields.

Gold Stamping – This practice imbeds designs and patterns of gold leaf in leather surfaces for decorative embellishment. This styling method has always been very popular for fashioning leather book covers, tapestries and bags of all types and sizes. Its artful use can add style, luster and sophistication to any pilot’s classic flight bag.

Textile, Apparel, Fashion, Beauty, Jewelry, Leather and Footwear

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