Bikini History Overview and Information

Bikini History

The Bikini History can be traced to antiquity. Women wore two-piece bikini-like garments in illustrations found at the Chalcolithic site of Çatalhoyuk. Illustrations found in Ancient Greece as far back as 1400 BC show women wearing a two-piece garment during athletic events.

Bikini History – In the Chalcolithic era around 5600 BC, the mother-goddess of Çatalhoyuk, a large ancient settlement in southern Anatolia, was depicted astride two leopards wearing a costume somewhat like a bikini. Two-piece garments worn by women for athletic purposes are depicted on Greek urns and paintings dating back to 1400 BC. Active women of ancient Greece wore a breastband called a mastodeton or an apodesmos, which continued to be used as an undergarment in the Middle Ages. While men in ancient Greece abandoned the perizoma, partly high-cut briefs and partly loincloth, women performers and acrobats continued to wear it.

Bikini History In 1907, Australian swimmer and performer Annette Kellerman was arrested on a Boston beach for wearing a form-fitting sleeveless one-piece knitted swimming tights that covered her from neck to toe, a costume she adopted from England, although it became accepted swimsuit attire for women in parts of Europe by 1910

Bikini History By the 1930s, necklines plunged at the back, sleeves disappeared and sides were cut away.

Bikini History – Two-piece swimsuits without the usual skirt panel and other superfluous material started appearing in the US when the government ordered a 10% reduction in fabric used in woman’s swimwear in 1943 as wartime rationing.

Bikini History – Swimwear of the 1940s, 50s and early 60s followed the silhouette mostly from early 1930s. Keeping in line with the ultra-feminine look dominated by Dior, it evolved into a dress with cinched waists and constructed bustlines, accessorized with earrings, bracelets, hats, scarves, sunglasses, hand bags and cover-ups.

Bikini History – The modern bikini was introduced by French engineer Louis Reard and separately by fashion designer Jacques Heim in Paris in 1946. It comprised two pieces, the bottom large enough to cover its wearer’s navel. In May 1946, he advertised it as the world’s smallest bathing suit. Reard sliced the top off the bottoms and advertised it as smaller than the smallest swimsuit. The idea struck him when he saw women rolling up their beachwear to get a better tan.

Bikini History – By the end of the century, the bikini went on to become the most popular beachwear around the globe and By the early 2000s, bikinis had become a US$811 million business annually.

Cotton Cloth Properties and Cotton Clothes Use

Cotton Cloth

Cotton Cloth is noted for its versatility and its natural comfort. It traps air within the fabric structure and help for a thermal insulation process, resulting protection from heat in summer and cold in winter. Cotton cloth has a high absorbency rate and holds up to 27 times its own weight in water.

For the cotton cloth strength, absorbency quality, capacity to be washed and dyed, it has become the principal clothing fabric of the world. It is obtained from a bushy plant scientifically known as Gossypium. The fruit (boll) part of the plant is used to make cotton cloth.

Cotton Cloth softness makes it a preferred fabric for underwear and other garments worn close to the skin.

Cotton Cloth Properties

  • is soft and comfortable. It has good strength.
  • is easy to handle and sew.It drapes well.
  • is flame retardant.
  • is machine-washable and dry-cleanable.
  • is hydrophilic, which means it has excellent absorbing capabilities.
  • wrinkles easily.
  • has bouncy and elasticity property.
  • has pleasant matte luster.
  • Cotton Fabric is hypoallergenic, which means it has a low tendency to cause allergic reactions.

Cotton Cloth Uses

Apparel | Garments

are very soft, comfortable and weather friendly. They are either 100% or blended with some natural or synthetic fibers.

Home Furnishing

It is Used in rugs or durries, draperies and curtains, bedding products, etc.

Handbags | Luggages

Due to strength, cotton handbags and luggages are more widely preferred.

Canvas

used in range of canvas products like shoes, tents, tarpaulins, etc.

Torsolette Overview and Torsolettes Uses

Torsolette

A Torsolette is a shorter, version of a corset that ends near your midriff. Torsolette have a lace-up or hook-and-eye closure, with boning and vertical seams for structure and support. They are less structured than corsets, and may or may not have bra cups, or suspenders.

A Torsolette also known as a Basque is a short corselette, covering the chest to the waist line. The undergarment is similar to a Victorian-era corset, but with less compression of the ribs. The modern-day Torsolette features lace-up or hook-and-eye fastening, as well as boning or vertical seams for structure and support. It usually, though not always, has brassiere cups, and is distinguished from the bustier by its length. It sometimes features detachable garters, or suspenders. In American English, it is sometimes known as a Merry widow.

A soft satin torselette that sits to the hip and presents a smooth shape beneath clothing. Contoured cup and soft boning provide strapless support.

Beautiful bridal torsolette is lightly boned to slim and clinch the waist, curve the hips and flatten the stomach.It has seamed underwire cups with lace on the upper cups. It has two column, 13 row hook and eye closure. It has Removable garter straps.It Does not come with shoulder straps but there are in-built strap loops if straps are needed. The Cups sizes are A – DD, F. F cup is equivalent to an Australian E cup.

How to Laminate Fabric, Laminating Fabric

How to Laminate Fabric

How to Laminate Fabric – Laminated Fabric protects the apparels, bags, beds from the dust and other outer particles. This can be carried out through the laminated fabric, used to laminate all kind of clothing, sheets, covers, hand bags and many more. It safeguards the core thing from any kind of external particles that hampers the quality and the glaze.

How to Laminate Fabric – Lamination is carried out by the covering the material with the protective film on all the sides. That does not let water to pass through, making the material completely safe. However it is not completely air tight as moisture is allowed to let in the for the longer life of the fabrics.

How to Laminate Fabric – Laminated fabric adds the durability and sustains the quality. In the recent developments, laminated fabrics, designs and shapes have been transformed with the undue assistance of the modern tools and techniques. Also, people have shown a great deal of zeal in the laminate fabrics because of its astounding glossiness and superior style.

How to Laminate Fabric – Today, it one of the prime fabrics used for the decoration and giving the interior a luxurious touch. In addition, the availability of the newest kind of the laminated fabric and those too at the most affordable prices has made it own by anyone.

How to Laminate Fabric – Laminated Fabric Types

  • Cotton
  • PVC
  • Vinyl

Life Cycle Costing and Life Cycle Cost Analysis

Life Cycle Costing

Life cycle costing is a method of economic analysis for all costs related to building, operating, and maintaining a project over a defined period of time. Assumed escalation rates are used to account for increases in utility costs over time. Future costs are expressed in present day dollars by applying a discount rate. All costs and savings can then be directly compared and fully-informed decisions can be made.

The purpose of an Life Cycle Costing is to estimate the overall costs of project alternatives and to select the design that ensures the facility will provide the lowest overall cost of ownership consistent with its quality and function. The Life Cycle Costing should be performed early in the design process while there is still a chance to refine the design to ensure a reduction in Life Cycle Costing.

The first and most challenging task of an Life Cycle Costing, or any economic evaluation method, is to determine the economic effects of alternative designs of buildings and building systems and to quantify these effects and express them in dollar amounts.

Life Cycle Costing can be applied to any capital investment decision in which relatively higher initial costs are traded for reduced future cost obligations. It is particularly suitable for the evaluation of building design alternatives that satisfy a required level of building performance but may have different initial investment costs, different operating and maintenance and repair costs, and possibly different lives. Life Cycle Costing provides a significantly better assessment of the long-term cost-effectiveness of a project than alternative economic methods that focus only on first costs or on operating-related costs in the short run.

Life Cycle Costing can be performed at various levels of complexity. Its scope might vary from a back-of-the-envelope study to a detailed analysis with thoroughly researched input data, supplementary measures of economic evaluation, complex uncertainty assessment, and extensive documentation. The extensiveness of the effort should be tailored to the needs of the project.

Corfam Information and Corfam Shoes

Corfam

Corfam leathers are a group of synthetic breathable leather substitutes made from a plastic coating (usually a polyurethane) on a fibrous base layer (typically a polyester). The term poromeric was coined by DuPont as a derivative of the terms microporous and polymeric. The first poromeric material was DuPont’s ill-fated Corfam introduced in 1963 at the Chicago Shoe Show.

It was the centerpiece of the DuPont pavilion at the 1964 New York World’s Fair in New York City. Major advantages of corfam over natural leather were its durability and its high gloss finish that could be easily cleaned with a damp cloth. Disadvantages of it were its stiffness which did not lessen with wearing, its relative lack of breathability, and easy confusion with non-breathable cheaper products. DuPont manufactured it at its plant in Old Hickory, Tennessee, from 1964 to 1971. After spending millions of dollars marketing the product to shoe manufacturers, DuPont withdrew it from the market in 1971 and sold the rights to a company in Poland.

It is still used today in some products, an example being certain types of equestrian saddle girth. Corfam shoes are still popular in uniformed professions where shiny shoes are desirable.

Metallic Fabric, Metal Clothing, Bronze Fabric

Metallic Fabric

The most common uses for metallic fabric is as upholstery fabric and textiles such as lame and brocade. Many people also use metallic fabric in weaving and needlepoint. Increasingly common today are metallic fabric in clothing, anything from party and evening wear to club clothing, cold weather and survival clothing, and everyday wear.

Coated metallic fabric helps to minimize tarnishing. When suitable adhesives and films are used, they are not affected by salt water, chlorinated water in swimming pools or climatic conditions. If possible anything made with metallic fabric should be dry-cleaned, if there is no care label. Ironing can be problematic because the heat from the iron, especially at high temperatures, can melt the fibers.

Metallic Fabric – Bronze Fabric

Bronze fabric is an exciting and versatile metallic fabric, the fine 400 mesh is easily manipulated by folding or pleating.

Bronze Fabric is ideal for millinery, lampshade making, 3-dimensional embroidery and textile art work. Bronze Fabrics can also be readily colored with a blow torch to give golds and blues. Used in jewellery making and combine with other etched or discharged fabrics to good effect. They have a wonderful sheen which is accentuated when folded. Sold per meter length and 100cm wide.

Metallic Fabric – Stainless Steel Fabric

Woven entirely from a proprietary stainless steel alloy Stainless Steel Fabric is Strong, flexible, soft to the touch, allows air and light to pass through. Looks, feels, cuts, and sews just like a traditional fiber fabric. This metallic fabric is composed of thousands of ultra fine stainless steel wires nearly as thin as human hair. 100% Stainless Steel Fabric provides up to 70 dB of Electromagnetic Shielding.

Stainless Steel Fabric is durable and hard wearing, resists temperatures up to 1200 F. This fabric has been used to make wallets and pouches that provide protection from electronic identity theft and electronic surveillance.

Exfoliation, How to Exfoliate Skin, Exfoliating

Exfoliation

Exfoliation involves the removal of the oldest dead skin cells on the skin’s outermost surface, and has been used for many years to help maintain healthy skin. It is involved in the process of all facials, during microdermabrasion or chemical peels at medical spas. It can be achieved through mechanical or chemical means.

Exfoliation removes the outer layer to reveal the newer skin beneath. This shedding of the outer layer unclogs pores, keeps skin clean, and helps reduce acne outbreaks. It should always be done after cleansing the skin. It is important for men as it exposes the hair follicles, allowing a better shave. It is possible to over exfoliate, which dries and irritates the skin. The face is the part of the body most sensitive to exfoliation. Hence, provided that exfoliating causes the skin to dry out, it is very important to moisturize it, because dry skin can lead to wrinkle development.

Mechanical Exfoliation process involves physically scrubbing the skin with an abrasive. Mechanical exfoliants include microfiber cloths, adhesive exfoliation sheets, micro-bead facial scrubs, crepe paper, crushed apricot kernel or almond shells, sugar or salt crystals, pumice, and abrasive materials such as sponges, loofahs, brushes, and simply fingernails.

Chemical exfoliants include scrubs containing salicylic acid, glycolic acid, fruit enzymes, citric acid, or malic acid which may be applied in high concentrations by a medical professional, or in lower concentrations in over-the-counter products.

Leather Stamping Tools, How to Stamp Leather

Leather Stamping

Leather Stamping is one of the go to customization options when it comes to leather products. The tools used are easily attainable and do not require much work or knowledge to use.

Stamping, Cold Stamping and Punching – This technique requires use of a hammer and cold metal irons to fashion a pattern or impress an image into a leather surface. As a popular stamping method, this technique is especially helpful in producing repetition of one motif or compositional element.

Blind Stamping – This type of impression design in leather is accomplished with the use of metal stamps that are heated. It is especially effective for leather book covers and bag surfaces that are fashioned from thin pieces of leather.

Veining and Creasing – With use of veining and creasing, leather crafting experts can create unique decorative edges and borders on leather pieces and leather items such as flight bags. This design technique has similarities to blind stamping since heated metal stamps are used in both design methods. Sometimes leather designers use wooden tools instead, pressing and rubbing the tools into the leather surface to create lines and shapes.

Cuerro Gofrado – This leather stamping method is also related to blind stamping. Originating in Spain and Italy, this leather styling technique creates a high-relief or many-layered result that can be quite intricate, whether bold or delicate. By pressing a leather piece or strip over a hot metal patterned plate, a unique design from the most simple to the most complex and sophisticated can be made.

Pyrogravure or Poker Art – In this form of leather design, leather surfaces are burned with white hot metal tools. On some light leathers, a soldering iron with a narrow tip is used. This decorative technique originated in Europe and was used extensively from around 700 to 1200 B.C. It became a favorite leather working method of the Vikings, especially for their leather helmets, breast plates and shields.

Gold Stamping – This practice imbeds designs and patterns of gold leaf in leather surfaces for decorative embellishment. This styling method has always been very popular for fashioning leather book covers, tapestries and bags of all types and sizes. Its artful use can add style, luster and sophistication to any pilot’s classic flight bag.

Textile, Apparel, Fashion, Beauty, Jewelry, Leather and Footwear

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