Cotton Combing

Cotton Combing / Combing

Cotton Combing is the process which is used to upgrade the raw material.

Combing influences the following yarn quality

Yarn evenness




Visual appearance

In addition to the above, combed cotton needs less twist than a carded yarn
Task of the Cotton Comber :

To produce an improvement in yarn quality, the comber must perform the following operation.

Elimination of short fibres

Elimination of remaining impurities

Elimination of neps

The basic operation of the comber is to improve the mean length or staple length by removing the short fibres.

Since fineness of short fibres(noil) is low, the overall micronaire of the sliver after combing is high.

Because of combing, fibre parallelization increases. But the high degree of parallelisation might reduce inter-fibre adhesion in the sliver to such an extent that the fibres slide apart while pulled out of the can. This may lead to sliver breaks or false draft.

Sequence of Operation in a Comber

Feeding, lap is fed by feed roller

Feed lap gripped by the nipper

Gripped lap is combed by circular comb

Detaching roller grips the combed lap and moves forward

While the detaching roller delivers the material, top comb comes into action to further clean the lap

While going back,nipper opens and receives a new bit of lap

The rawmaterial delivered by the carding machine can not be fed directly to the comber. Lap preparation is a must .
A good lap fed to the comber should have

Highest degree of evenness so that lap is gripped uniformly by the nipper

A good parallel disposition of fibres so that long fibres will not be lost in the noil

Trailing hooks from carding should be fed as leading hooks to reduce long fibre loss in the noil

Degree of parallelisation of lap fed to the combers should be optimum. If fibres are over parallelised lap licking will be a major problem. Because of fibre to fibre adhesion, mutual separation of layers within the sheet is very poor.Moreover the retaining power of the sheet can be strongly reduced that it is no longer able to hold back the neps as it usually does. Some of these neps also pass thro the top comb. Neppiness of the web is increased.

Retaining power of the fibres results in self cleaning of the lap during combing operation. A thick sheet always exerts a greater retaining power than a thin one.To certain extent, the bite of the nipper is more effective with a higher sheet volume.On the negative side , a thick sheet always applies a strong load to the comb and this can lead to uncontrolled combing.A compromise should be struck between quality and productivity.

If the sheet is more even across the width, clamping effect at the bite of the nipper will be better. Evenness of the lap is therefore of considerable significance. The most effective method of obtaining a high degree of evenness of the sheet is through more number of doublings in the web form. (as it is done in Ribbon Lap)

Fibres must be presented to the comber so that leading hooks predominate in the feedstock. This influences not only the opening out of the hooks themselves, but also the cleanliness of the web.If the sheet is fed to the comber in the wrong direction, the number of neps rises markedly.

Both quantity and form of fibre hooks depend mainly upon the stiffness of the fibres. This rises to the second or third power with fine fibres. Fine and long fibres will always exhibit more and longer hooks than short and coarse fibres. Accordingly, the role of fibre hooks in the spinning process becomes more significant as fibres become finer

There are two types of feeds in Comber

Forward feed (concurrent feed):Feed of the sheet into the nippers occurs while the nippers move towards the detaching roller

Backward feed (counter-feed) : Feed of the sheet occurs during return of the nippers

Higher Noil % always improves the imperfections in the final yarn. But the strength and other qality parameters improve upto certain noil %, further increase in noil results in quality detrioration.

The Feed Length has a direct influence on production rate, noil %, and the quality of combing. High feed length increases the production rate but cause deterioration in quality. Higher the quality requirement, feed length should be lower. To some extent , the feed length may be decided by the length of the fibre also. Detaching length is the distance between the bite of hte nippers and the nip of the detaching rollers. This distance direectly affects the noil %. More the detaching distance, higher the elimination of noil.

Needles of the top comb have a flattened cross section and are used with a point density in the range of 22 to 32 needles per centimeter. More the needles, more the noil%.

The Depth of Penetration of top comb also affects the Noil %. If the comb depth is increased by 0.5mm, approximately 2% increase in noil will occur. When the depth is increased , the main improvement in quality is seen in Neps.Over deep penetration of top comb disturbs fibre movement during piecing which will deteriorate the quality.

Since the web from detaching roller is intermittent because of the intermittent functions like feeding, combing and detaching, to have a continuous web from the comber,fibre fringes are laid on the top of each other in the same way as roofting tiles. This process is called Piecing. This is a distinct source of fault in the operation of Rectinlinear Combing. The sliver produced in this way exhibits a periodic variation.

As large a lap as possible with adapted lap weight which is as high and as uniform as possible must be positioned in front of the comber. The better the comber lap is prepared, the heavier the lap weight can be set on the comber and the less the resultant noil waste with the same degree of cleanliness of the yarn.

The higher degree of combing out are used in order to permit final spinning of ultra-fine yarns or to increase the strength of a yarn. Reducing the lint content improves the medium staple. However, not all cottons meet these requirements. Low degree of combing out , on the other hand, frequently serve to improve purity. When the card sliver is pulled through the needle bars, these separate off foreign bodies, large neps and torn fibres. Light combing out has also been introduced to a greater extent owing to the impairments in cotton purity influenced by mechanical harvesting. Even when combing with minimum noil percentages, there is a noticeable improvement in fibre parallelsim in the sliver. Even the smoothness and shine of the yarn are improved. It must thus be anticipated that this method will become more and more popular in the future.

Production of the comber is dependent upon the following
N- Nips per min
S- feed in mm/nip
G- lap weight in g/m
K- Noil percentage
A- tension draft between lap and feed roller(from 1.05 to 1.1)
E- efficiency

Production = (E * N * S * G * (100-K) * 60 * 8) / (1000 * 1000 * A *100)

Properties of Cotton and Cotton Characteristics

Properties of Cotton

Properties of Cotton – Physical Properties of Cotton

Color: The color of cotton fiber could be white, creamy white, bluish white, yellowish white or grey.

Tensile Strength: Cotton is moderately strong fiber. It has a tenacity of 3-5 gm/den. The strength is greatly affected by moisture; the wet strength of cotton is 20%, which is higher than dry strength.

Properties of Cotton – Elongation at break: Cotton does not stress easily. It has an elongation at break of 5-10%.

Elastic Recovery: Cotton is inelastic and rigid fiber. At 2% extension it has an ER of 74% and at 5% extension it has an ER of 45%.

Properties of Cotton – Specific Gravity: Specific gravity is 1.54.

Moisture Regain (MR %): Standard moisture regain is 8.5.

Effect of Heat: Cotton has an excellent resistance to degradation by heat. It begins to turn yellow after several hours at 1200C and decomposes marked by at 1500C. As a result of oxidation, cotton is severally damaged after few minutes at 2400C. Cotton burns in air.

Properties of Cotton – Effect of Sun Light: There is a gradual loss of strength when cotton is exposed to sun light and the fiber turn yellow. The degradation of cotton by oxidation is done when heat is promoted and encouraged. By sun light much of the damage is caused by UV-light and by the shorten weaves of visible light.

Properties of Cotton – Effect of Age: Cotton shows a small loss of strength when stored carefully. After 50 years of storage cotton may differ only slightly from the new fibers.

Chemical Properties of Cotton

Cotton is a natural cellulosic fiber and it has some chemical properties. Chemical properties of the cotton fiber are given below:

Effect of Acids: Cotton is attacked by hot dilute acids or cold concentrated acids which it disintegrates. It is not affected by acids.

Properties of Cotton – Effects of Alkalis: Cotton has an excellent resistance to alkalis. It swells in caustic alkalis ( NaOH) but it does not damaged. It can be washed repeatedly in soap solution without any problem.

Properties of Cotton – Effect of Organic Solvent: Cotton has high resistance to normal cleaning solvents. Cotton is dissolved by the copper complexes, such as cuprammonium hydroxide, cupriethylene diamine and concentrated 70% H2SO4.

Effects of Insects: Cotton is not attacked by moth-grubs or beetles.

Properties of Cotton – Effect of Micro Organism: Cotton is attacked by fungi and bacteria. Mildews will feed on cotton fabric, rotting and weakling the materials. Mildews and bacteria will flourish on cotton under hot and humid condition. They can be protected by impregnation with certain types of chemicals. Copper Nepthenate is one of the chemical.

Properties of Cotton – When observing the fiber under a microscope it looks like a flat ribbon with corkscrew-like twists. These torsions, which are a typical property of fully ripe cotton, often change direction of rotation. During spinning the fibers adhere very well, despite their smooth surface, as the twists interlock like hinges.

Properties of Cotton – Furthermore, cotton is very resistant towards mechanical or chemical impacts. It is very tear proof, has a high wet strength and is resistant to abrasion.

Properties of Cotton – Additionally, the fiber is relatively heat resistant. Discoloration of dry cotton starts at about 160°C while it turns brown at about 250°C.

Cotton is also easy to clean and has exquisite properties for coloration.

Properties of Cotton – Yellow or brown hues which naturally occur in raw cotton weaves can be removed by bleaching in a color-safe way.

Henna Designs, Tattoo Patterns, Mehndi Tattoos

Henna Designs

Henna Designs has moved out international. Once a typically Indian custom and a vital part of a bride’s makeup, Henna Designs has gone cosmopolitan.

With the passing of centuries, Henna Designs has gained in significance in cultures within the middle East, Asia and North Africa. All of these communities use henna for the same purpose to decorate and beautify however, each one has its own unique Henna Designs, inspired by indigenous fabrics, the local architecture and natural environment, and individual cultural experiences.

In south India, a circular pattern is drawn and filled in the center of the palm. Then a cap is formed on the fingers, as if they had been dipped in henna. This Henna Designs are used by most Asian elders, as in the early days before cones (similar to icing bags) were available it was simple to apply. It is this design that is used by south Indian classical dancers.

In north Africa, very intricate Henna Designs are developed around peacock, butterfly and fish images, which are completed with finely detailed patterns. The effect is that of a lace glove, as great attention is given to filling in the gaps that surround the main motif. Religious symbols are incorporated, such as the ‘doli’, a form of hand-pulled carriage which was used to transport the bride from her home to her in-laws’ house in the days before cars. The lotus is also popular. Many people confuse Pakistani with north Indian Henna Designs, because both are intricately applied to give a lacy glove-like effect.

In fact, however, Pakistani Henna Designs are a blend of the north Indian style and Arabic motifs – flowers, leaves and geometrical shapes. This choice of motif derives from religious teachings. Muslims must not pray with figurative representations on the body, and so do not employ designs depicting human faces, birds or animals. Arabic Henna Designs are well spaced on the hand, and traditionally completed by dyeing the nails with henna to give a deep stain.

Overview of Waxing

Overview of Waxing

Waxing is the process which is almost exclusively used in all automatic and manual winding machines for yarns which are meant for knitting. This helps to reduce the coefficient of friction of yarns created during knitting process.

Extensive tests have shown that the coefficient of friction of waxed yarn is not constant, but depends on the amount of wax on the yarn. It is proved that both too little and too much wax cause increase in coefficient of friction and thus detrioration in running efficiency on the knitting machine.
The Recommended Wax Pick up for Different Material are given below

Cotton and its blends – wax take-up of 1.0 to 2.0 grams per kg of yarn

Synthetics – wax take-up of 0.5 to 1.5 gram per kg of yarn

Wool and its blends – wax takep-up of 2.0 to 3.0 grams per kg

From the technical point of view, it is interesting to note that very small amounts of wax are already sufficient to give an optimal reduction in friction coefficient. If for example, we take 1 kg of 50s metric yarn, there are 50000 meters of yarn. It is quite sufficient to apply 1 gm of wax on this length of yarn, to obtain optimum reduction in friction.

As the original coefficients of friction of non-waxed yarns are so varied, due to different raw materials and blends, dye-stuffs, additives, twist etc, so also are the values obtained with waxed yarns.
Absolute comments about coefficients of friction are not possible. It depends on several factors, such as type of material, count, twist, dyeing process, yarn moisture content, atmospheric conditions etc.

Even with efficient waxing , the results in knitting can still be adversely affected, if the package of waxed yarn is subsequently handled. A typical example is conditioning of waxed packages. The conditioning causes an increase in friction coefficient, and thus a deterioration in running properties. Therefore one should not condition waxed packages. An increase in moisture content causes an increase in friction coefficient.

If too-damp bobbins are creeled at the winding machine, poor waxing results, because yarns with high moisture content take up hardly any wax. If bobbins have to be conditioned or steamed, the yarn should be allowed to stand for atleast 24 hours, so that it can return to its normal condition before winding.

A further problem can arise during steaming, or any other treatment involving the application of heat to a waxed package.
Low yarn tension will affect the wax pickup Dimensions and form of wax rollers will affect the wax uniformity As it is clear and is important that, if the waxed particles are to carry out their function, they must remain on the surface of the yarn. When the yarn is subjected to heat however, the wax melts and penetrates to the inside of the yarn body: it can then no longer work effectively.

When choosing the wax, it is essential to consider the type of yarn and fibre, the temperature in the production area, etc., and the characteristics indicated by the wax manufacturer

Amethyst Stone Color, Birthstone, Gemstone


Amethyst is related to citrine, which is the yellow form of quartz, and also to rock crystal which is the colorless variety. It is very expensive. Its color is unparalleled, and even other, more expensive purple gemstones are often compared to its color and beauty. Although it must always be purple to be amethyst, it can and does have a wide range of purple shades as well. Amethyst Stone can occur as long prismatic crystals that have a six sided pyramid at either end or can form as druzes that are crystalline crusts that only show the pointed terminations. As a mineral specimen, amethyst is popular for its color and nice crystal shapes that produce a handsome, purple, sparkling cluster. But it can also be seen that Amethyst is not the same everywhere. Different localities can produce a unique Amethyst Stone to that particular region or even to that particular mine. Experts can often identify the source mine that a particular amethyst came from. The key to this is the specimen`s color, shape of crystal, inclusions, associations and character of formation.

Amethyst Color

Amethyst is colorless in its purest form that is found in abundance. The finest quality Amethyst Color is medium to medium dark in tone, vivid in intensity, and purple, reddish purple to bluish purple in hue. Heating removes the Color or changes it to the yellow of citrine. Most commercial citrine is made in this manner.

Amethyst is the birthstone of Aquarius i.e. Water Bearer. The time ranges from Jan 20 – Feb 18. It is anniversary gemstone for the 4th and 6th year of marriage.


Oriental amethyst, or purple sapphire, is not quartz but a variety of corundum, a much harder and rarer stone. Amethyst often becomes paler if kept out in the sun. It should be cleaned in ultrasonic jewelry cleaner or with warm, soapy water and a soft bristle brush. These should always be kept away from strong chemicals and sudden temperature changes.

Leather Coral and Toadstool Leather Coral

Leather Coral

Leather Coral is a soft skinned coral with visible polyps all over their skin. They do not have a calcified skeleton structure making them a little more tolerant of some water parameters like calcium. There are hundreds of different species of leather coral. Properly identifying the exact species can sometime be very difficult as their shape can altered due to environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, light intensity and water movement to name a few. It can look one way in a aquarium and then (over time) look very different when placed in another tank.

As Leather Coral not have a calcified skeleton structure, they can be more tolerant of swings in the alkalinity, calcium, and magnesium when compared to other corals. However, they will not be very tolerant to swings in PH, Temp, or salinity which is no different than any other coral or fish.

Most Leather Coral have some very effective defensive abilities. Leather Coral commonly have the ability to sting other corals and some fish along with emitting chemicals to ward off other corals from entering their space. For this reason it is very important to understand how big your leather coral can get and plan for enough space between your leather coral and other corals. Just leaving a few inches may not always be enough as some leathers can get surprisingly large. It would also be a good idea to have some carbon in your set-up in case your leather will start to emit defensive chemicals.

It can also get nutrients from the water. They can collect microplankton and zooplankton with their polyps to obtain the nutrition they require. They would certainly benefit from the occasional spot feeding. You can compensate for lower lighting with manually feeding a leather to sustain for short periods of time. Most Leather Coral will do best when they get their needed nutrition from both the water and your tank lighting.

Beauty Schools in Philippines

Beauty Schools in Philippines

Ricky Reyes Learning Institute

Location:Quezon City

Category:Beauty Schools/Training Ctr

Ricky Reyes founded the Ricky Reyes Learning Institute (formerly known as Ricky Reyes Beauty Institute) on March 7, 1995. The Ricky Reyes Learning Institute was established mainly to help facilitate livelihood programs for the youth.

Address : Estolano Bldg., Aurora Blvr. cor. EDSA, Cubao, Quezon City

City/Province:Quezon City

Contact No: 02 7247740/ 02 7224539

The Tony Galvez School of Cosmetology (TGSC)

Location:Quezon City

Category:Beauty Schools/Training Ctr

The Tony Galvez School of Cosmetology (TGSC) offers a comprehensive training program that prepares students into pursuing exciting and lucrative careers as elite professionals in the beauty industry.

Address : 3rd Floor The Tony Galvez Centrum 124 9th Avenue near corner P. Tuazon Boulevard

Araneta Center, Cubao Quezon City , Philippines 1109

City/Province:Quezon City

Contact No:+63 (2) 396-2112

Pearl Color, Pearl Luster Overview

Pearl Color

Pearl Color range from white to black with various multicolored overtones. The pearl color is really the wearer’s preference.

While pearl color is most commonly silver-white, and most rarely the coveted black pearl, almost any pearl color in between can also occur.

Pearl color have a coloring effect called orient, which refers to any shimmering, iridescent colors that swirl, move, and glitter, as the light changes, or as the pearl is moved.

The Pearl color is produced by the oyster as the pearl is being formed. Though the Pearl color has very little impact on the actual quality of the pearl, the perceived beauty of it has an effect on its value.

There are many different sizes of Pearl Gemstone that are used in a pink pearl necklace. They range from about 3 mm to 9 mm in diameter. Usually Pearl Gemstone are strung on a silken cord as well. There are four classes of pearls: A, AA, AAA, and AAAA. The 4 A is at the top of the list and usually the most expensive while 1 A is the least expensive of the four.

Pearl jewelry is designed with many cultural pearls type such as freshwater pearls, akoya seawater pearls, Tahitian Pearls and South sea pearls. More than 80 percent of jewelry sold around the society is made with freshwater and akoya pearls, as they are more affordable than Tahitian and south sea which are typically on the higher side.

The unique luster of Pearl Gemstone depends upon the reflection, refraction, and diffraction of light from the translucent layers. The thinner and more numerous the layers in the pearl, the finer the luster. The iridescence that Pearl Gemstone display is caused by the overlapping of successive layers, which breaks up light falling on the surface. In addition, Pearl Gemstone (especially cultured freshwater pearls) can be dyed yellow, green, blue, brown, pink, purple, or black. The very best pearls have a metallic mirror-like luster.

Because Pearl stone are made primarily of calcium carbonate, they can be dissolved in vinegar. Calcium carbonate is susceptible to even a weak acid solution because the crystals of calcium carbonate react with the acetic acid in the vinegar to form calcium acetate and carbon dioxide.

1960s Fashion, 1960 Fashion and 60s Fashion

1960s Fashion

The 1960s Fashion a number of diverse trends are featured. It was a decade that broke many fashion traditions, mirroring social movements during the time.In the middle of the decade, culottes, go-go boots, box-shaped PVC dresses and other PVC clothes were popular. The widely popular bikini came into fashion in 1963.

False eyelashes were worn by women throughout the 1960s Fashion, and their hairstyles were a variety of lengths and styles. While focusing on colors and tones, accessories were less of an importance during the sixties. People were dressing in psychedelic prints, highlighter colors, and mismatched patterns. The hippie movement late in the decade also exerted a strong influence on ladies’ clothing styles, including bell-bottom jeans, tie-dye, and batik fabrics, as well as paisley prints.

In 1964, French designer Andre Courreges introduced the space look, with trouser suits, white boots, goggles, and box-shaped dresses whose skirts soared three inches above the knee. These were mainly designed in fluorescent colours and shiny fabrics such as PVC and sequins.

The leaders of 1960s Fashion style were the British. The Modernists were characterized by their choice of style different from the 1950s and adopted new fads that would be imitated by many young people. As the Mods strongly influenced the fashion in London, 1960s fashion in general set the mood for the rest of the century as it became marketed mainly to young people.

Flared trousers and bellbottoms led the way to the hippie stage introduced in the 1960s Fashion. Variations of polyester were worn along with acrylics.

In 1960s Fashion, Bell-bottomed trousers were a new alternative to the capris of the early 1960s. They were usually worn with chiffon blouses, polo-necked ribbed sweaters or tops that bared the midriff.

Women’s hair styles ranged from beehive hairdos in the early part of the decade to the very short styles popularized by Twiggy and Mia Farrow just five years later to a very long straight style as popularized by the hippies in the late 1960s Fashion.

Surat Diamonds and Surat Diamond Market

Surat Diamonds

Surat Diamonds market is largest market of diamond polishing, cutting and crafting in the whole world. Availability of skilled but low waged workers and the presence of international market have earned a world wide fame for the Surat Diamonds.

About 300,000 cutters are engaged in the Surat Diamonds factories in Surat and they have made the city, the heart of nation’s diamond polishing industry. The thriving industry was able to earn a whopping eight billion dollars in exports.

The Surat Diamond market face the maximum demand for the Christmas and the work for which starts from the month of July. The Government and the business houses are planning various developments to improve the industry and the conditions of the workers. The government has a taken a strict stand against the use of child labors in the factories. New technologies has been introduced to boost efficiency and perfection of Surat Diamonds market.

The associations and co – operatives in the Surat diamond jewelry industry are trying to arrange for training, research, marketing and recognizing new potentials for the diamond jewelry industry. Accordingly, the jewelry park of Surat is trying to bring down major diamond manufacturers of Surat under a single umbrella. Bulk of the work has now become computerized. Surat diamond jewelry industry is flourishing day by day with the soaring prices of diamond as well as the increased number of consumers.

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