Corrected Grain Leather Overview and Uses

Corrected Grain Leather

Corrected Grain Leather is any leather that has had an artificial grain applied to its surface. The hides used to create corrected leather do not meet the standards for use in creating vegetable-tanned or aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected or sanded off and an artificial grain impressed into the surface and dressed with stain or dyes. Most corrected-grain leather is used to make pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-aniline and pigmented.

As all imperfections are removed during the process of creating corrected grain leather it has an even appearance and will not show the natural marks commonly found on leather, such as scars and bite marks.

This type of leather is not as soft as other leathers types and can also have a ‘plastic’ feel to it due to the high amounts of pigment used to coat the surface. As high amounts of pigment are used, corrected grain leather will not have much shade variation as seen in other types of leather, such as aniline leather, and will have a solid colour throughout.

Corrected grain leather is often manufactured from hides that contain lots of imperfections, such as bite marks and scars. These imperfections make the hides unsuitable for use on sofas, so they must be removed first.

To remove these imperfections, the leather is first buffed, and then before having an imitation leather grain is embossed onto its surface. This embossing gives the leather a more uniform appearance.

Next, the leather is coloured with a pigmented coating that is applied to its surface. The pigmented layer is thick, durable, and also helps to cover imperfections further. After these processes are complete, the leather is more suitable to be used on sofas.

Corrected grain leather is also referred to as pigmented or finished leather.

A corrected grain leather sofa is a great choice if you want a hard-wearing, durable, and easy-to-clean sofa. It makes an ideal choice for a busy family home with young children and pets.

A great feature of this leather is that if liquid, such as coffee, is spilt onto your sofa, the pigmented coating will resist absorption long enough for you to be able to wipe it down with a damp cloth.

The pigmented coating has a great resistance is very resistant to light and will not fade as rapidly as the dyes that are often used to colour unfinished leathers, such as aniline leather.

Fashion Jewelry Care, Cleaning Tips, Silver, Gold, Platinum, Gemstone, Pearl Jewelry

Fashion Jewelry | Jewelry Care | Cleaning Jewelry
Jewelry Cleaning Tips
Divide the jewelry that requires cleaning according to type such as gold plated or vermeil, silver clad, platinum clad, imitation pearls, gemstones, water-soluable stones and the like.

Gather together all of the information you can find about cleaning and caring for each individual type of fashion jewelry that you own. If you do not have cleaning instructions for one or more types of jewelry, check the resources that are available online or through books.

Based on the information you have for cleaning your fashion jewelry, gather all of the products together needed to perform the cleaning procedures. If you do not have something needed on hand, obtain it before moving forward to the next step.

Starting with one type of jewelry, follow the cleaning instructions you have researched. If the procedure followed works for the items in question, then move on to another type of jewelry. If the cleaning procedures do not work for one or more items, put them aside for further research before moving forward.

Continue cleaning your jewelry, by type, until all of the pieces you can clean are finished.

Store each cleaned piece of jewelry according to the care procedures provided in your collected information.

Inspect each jewelry piece that did not clean properly to make certain that it was divided into the correct jewelry type.
Cleaning Silver Jewelry

Inspect silver clad items for any type of hallmark. Certain types of clad or overlaid materials will be so marked. If a hallmark is present, try cleaning the piece again following another acceptable procedure outlined in your resource materials for that type of metal. If it still doesn’t clean properly, consider taking the piece to a professional jeweler for cleaning.
Cleaning Gold Jewelry

Inspect gold clad and vermeil items for any type of hallmark. Certain types of clad or overlaid materials will be so marked. If the hallmark is present, trying cleaning the piece again following another acceptable procedure outlined in your resource materials for that type of metal. If it still doesn’t clean properly, consider taking the piece to a professional jeweler for cleaning.
Cleaning Platinum Jewelry

Inspect platinum clad items for any type of hallmark. Certain types of clad items will be so marked. If the hallmark is present, trying cleaning the piece again following another acceptable procedure outlined in your resource materials for that type of metal. If it still doesn’t clean properly, consider taking the piece to a professional jeweler for cleaning.
Cleaning Gemstone Jewelry

Inspect gemstone jewelry with an eye toward determining its authenticity. Rarely are authentic gemstones included in fashion jewelry; however, it does happen from time to time. If you cannot determine for certain whether or not your gem is authentic, try following the cleaning instructions provided in your resource materials for an imitation stones of the same type. If that does not work, consider taking the jewelry item to a professional for cleaning.

Inspect water soluble stones like opal, amber, and turquoise for its authenticity. Rarely are these types of stones included in fashion jewelry; however, it does happen in rare instances. If it is authentic, you made need to apply oils, glycerines, or other materials to the stone in order to revitalize its luster. Refer to your resource materials for specific care instructions for each individual stone. If you cannot determine for certain whether or not the stone is authentic, try following the cleaning instructions provided in your resource materials for an imitation stones of the same type. If that does not work, consider taking the jewelry item to a professional for cleaning.
Cleaning Pearl Jewelry

Inspect pearls to ascertain if they are authentic, following guidelines provided within your resource materials. Rarely are real pearls set into fashion jewelry but it does happen once in awhile. If you determine that the pearls are authentic, try following an alternative cleaning process outlined in your resource materials. If that still doesn’t work, you can trying cleaning them according to instructions provided in your resource materials for imitation stones. If that does not work either, consider taking your pearls to a jeweler for professional cleaning.

Whenever in doubt, follow the cleaning directions for imitation gems, water soluble stones, and pearls. If your jewelry items still do not clean properly, then you may have to take them to a jeweler for professional cleaning. The other option is to resign yourself to the fact that the item cannot be restored to its original condition. Decide whether to continue wearing it or eliminate it from your collection.

Omega-3 Fats Overview and Information

Omega-3 Fats

Omega-3 Fats refer to a group of three fats called ALA (found in plant oils), EPA, and DHA (both commonly found in marine oils). Common sources of Omega-3 Fats include fish oils, egg oil, squid oils, krill oil, while some plant oils contain the omega 3 ALA fatty acid such as seabuckthorn seed and berry oils, algal oil, flaxseed oil, Sacha Inchi oil, Echium oil, and hemp oil.

Omega-3 Fats are vital for normal metabolism but some of the potential health benefits of supplementation are controversial. These are considered essential fatty acids, meaning that they cannot be synthesized by the human body. Omega-3 Fats are polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain.

Omega-3 Fats have mild antihypertensive effects. When subjects consumed omega-3 fatty acids from oily fish on a regular basis, their systolic blood pressure was lowered by about 3.5–5.5 mmHg.

Evidently, Omega-3 Fats reduce blood triglyceride levels, and regular intake may reduce the risk of secondary and primary heart attack. These offer a promising complementary approach to standard treatments for ADHD and developmental coordination disorder. Fish oils appear to reduce ADHD-related symptoms in some children.

A recent trend has been to fortify food with Omega-3 Fats supplements. Global food companies have launched omega-3 fatty acid fortified bread, mayonnaise, pizza, yogurt, orange juice, children’s pasta, milk, eggs, popcorn, confections, and infant formula.

What is Haute Couture, Fashion, Definition, Meaning

Haute Couture | Haute Couture Fashion
What is Haute Couture | Define Haute Couture | Haute Couture Definition | Haute Couture Meaning | What is Couture | Define Couture | Couture Definition | Couture Meaning

The term Haute Couture is often used generically to refer to high fashion, but Haute Couture has a very specific meaning in France. Within France, couture is a term used to refer to garments produced in high-end design firms which sew custom garments for their clients, using workshops and staff based in Paris. Outside of France, couture is used to refer to any sort of extremely fashionable garment, whether or not the garment has been custom fitted.

Couture is actually short for haute couture, a French phrase which means high dressmaking. In order to be considered couture under French law, a garment must be produced by one of the members of the Chambre de commerce et d’industrie de Paris, and the garment must be fitted to a specific client, with at least two personal fittings to ensure that the garment looks correct. Furthermore, the firm itself must maintain a workshop in Paris with French staff, and present a collection during both annual fashion weeks.

Because many firms which produce couture garments also produce off-the-rack or pret-a-porter styles, the definition of Haute Couture has become blurred in the eyes of many consumers. In part, this is because of a conscious decision among fashion houses, who want to capitalize on the elite cachet of the term couture without having to invest large amounts of money and time in the production of personalized high fashion garments.

As of 2008, some notable Haute Couture firms include Chanel, Givenchy, Jean Paul Gaultier, and Christian Lacroix, among others. In addition to producing exclusive pret-a-porter lines which can be purchased in department stores and boutiques, these companies also offer traditional haute couture to clients who are willing to travel to Paris and pay the price. The price for couture, by the way, can be quite hefty; a beaded evening dress can sell for as much as $40,000 US Dollars, a sum which may seem mind-boggling to the less fashion minded.
History of Haute Couture

The history of haute couture or history of couture dates back to the mid-1800s, and the reason couture can command such a high price is because of the long tradition of high fashion in France. Haute Couture garments are designed to look absolutely stunning on clients, with fits customized to the client’s body, way of movement, and personal style. The detailing on Haute Couture garments such as beading and embroidery is always done by hand, representing hours and sometimes months of labor.

With the rise of very high quality off-the-rack fashion, couture is not quite as popular among the wealthy set as it once was, but the tradition is likely to endure, especially among those who wish to look particularly unique or stunning at events like the Academy Awards, society weddings, and the Opening of Parliament.

However, the term Haute Couture is also used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted clothing, whether it is produced in Paris or in other fashion capitals such as Milan, London, Rome, New York and Tokyo.

Types of Cotton and Cotton Plants

Types of Cotton

Types of Cotton – Sea Island Cotton

Sea island Cotton thrives in the unique climate of the Sea Islands, located off the southeastern coast of the United States, and on the islands of the West Indies such as Barbados.

Types of Cotton – Egyptian Cotton

As with Egyptian cotton, the fiber is white and lustrous but its fiber length is longer than that of any other type of cotton, which permits the spinning of extremely fine yarns.

Types of Cotton – Pima Cotton | American Egyptian Cotton

Pima, originally called American-Egyptian cotton, is a hybrid type. It is the only variety of long-fiber cotton now grown in commercially significant quantities in the United States, where it is cultivated under irrigation in the Southwest. Genetically modified cotton seeds have also been introduced, resulting in greater yields.

Types of Cotton – Upland Cotton

In the U.S. there are fourteen major cotton growing states that produce Upland cotton. They are Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. Some cotton is also grown in Florida, Kansas and New Mexico. American Pima cotton is grown in Arizona, California, New Mexico and Texas. All of these states form a region in the United States known as the Cotton Belt and have three things in common, lots of sunshine, water and fertile soil, very important to growing a good cotton crop.

Types of Cotton – Upland cotton being the most common type in the U.S. has a staple length (length of fiber) of 13/16 to 1 inches. The American Pima has a staple length of 1 5/16 to 1 ½ inches. These cotton plant types grow and mature at different rates and lengths of time, but basically mature within a 30 day period of each other.

Cotton plants have a general time frame in which they grow and produce after planting (introducing the seed to moist soil). With ideal conditions, the planted cotton seed will germinate (to begin to grow) or sprout and emerge in about five to ten days. The first 2 cotton leaf that are visible on the young cotton plant are seedling leaves called cotyledons (cot-a-lee-dons). They are useful for absorbing sunlight into the plant. The sunlight is then converted through a process known as photosynthesis, into nourishing carbohydrates that will help the plant grow.

Types of Cotton – In about two to four weeks they turn over the photosynthetic task to true leaves ( cotton leaf produced subsequent to the cotyledons) which continue the feeding process for the duration of the plants life. The plant continues to grow, adding cotton leaf and height, and in approximately five to seven weeks, small cotton flower buds called cotton squares (a small flower bud covered with fringed leaf-like parts called bracts) will appear on the cotton plant. As this square develops, the bud swells and begins to push through the bracts until it opens into an attractive Cotton flower. Within three days, the flower will pollinate (the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same or another flower) itself, change from a creamy white or yellow color to a pinkish red, and then wither and fall, exposing a small, green, immature cotton boll (a segmented pod containing 32 immature seeds from which the cotton fibers will grow). This boll is considered a fruit because it contains seeds. As the fibers continue to grow and thicken within the segmented boll, it enlarges until it becomes approximately the size of a small fig. Now, the cotton fibers have become mature and thickened with their primary growth substance, cellulose (a carbohydrate, the chief component of the cell wall in most plants). An average cotton boll will contain nearly 500,000 fibers of cotton and each plant may bear up to 100 cotton bolls.

Types of Cotton – In about 140 days after planting or 45 days after cotton bolls appear, the cotton boll will begin to naturally split open along the bolls segments or carpels and dry out, exposing the underlying cotton segments called locks. These dried carpels are known as the cotton burr, and it’s the bur that will hold the locks of cotton in place when fully dried and fluffed, ready for cotton picking.

Types of Cotton – The cotton growth cycle of the various cotton species vary in length, but the sequence of cotton fruit production remain the same. Weather, insects and moisture can adversely affect optimum conditions for plant growth and it is the farmer’s responsibility to adjust to these conditions to optimize yield.

Obi Sash Overview and Obi Sashes Types

Obi Sash

Obi sash is a traditional Japanese dress worn for Japanese martial arts, and a part of kimono outfits.

Obi sash for men’s kimono is rather narrow, 10centimetres (3.9in) wide at most, but a woman’s formal one can be 30centimetres (12in) wide and more than 4metres (13ft) long. Nowadays, a woman’s wide and decorative one does not keep the kimono closed. this is done by different under sashes and ribbons worn underneath it. The obi itself also requires the use of stiffeners and ribbons. There are many types of Obi sash, and most of them are for women. wide ones made of brocade and narrower, simpler ones for everyday wear. The fanciest and most colorful ones are for young unmarried women. The contemporary women’s Obi sash is a very conspicuous accessory. sometimes even more so than the kimono robe itself. A fine formal one might cost more than the rest of the entire outfit. Obi sash are categorized by their design, formality, material, and use. Informal Obi sash are narrower and shorter.

Obi sash History

In its early days, an Obi sash was a cord or a ribbon-like sash, approximately 8centimetres (3.1in) in width. In the beginning of the 17th century both women and men wore a ribbon type. By the 1680s the width of women’s Obi sash had already doubled. In the 1730′s women’s Obi sash were about 25centimetres (9.8in) wide and at the turn of the 19th century even as wide as 30centimetres (12in). At that time separate ribbons and cords were already necessary to hold it in place. Men’s obi was at its widest in the 1730s, being about 16centimetres (6.3in) wide.

Women’s Obi sash

The wide women’s type is folded in two when worn, to a width of about 15centimetres (5.9in) to20centimetres (7.9in). It is considered elegant to tie the Obi sash so that the folded width is in harmony with the wearer’s body dimensions. Usually this means about a tenth of her height. The full width of the obi is present only in the decorative knot, musubi.

A woman’s Obi sash is worn in a fancy musubi knot. There are tens of ways to tie an obi, and different knots are suited to different occasions and different kimonos.

There are many different types of women’s Obi sash, and the usage of them is regulated by many unwritten rules not unlike those that concern the kimono itself. Certain types of obi are used with certain types of kimono. the Obi sash of married and unmarried women are tied in different ways. Often the obi adjusts the formality and fanciness of the whole kimono outfit. the same kimono can be worn to very different situations depending on what kind of obi is worn with it.

Obi sash types

Darari Obi sash

It is a very long maru obi worn by maiko. A maiko’s darari obi has the kamon insignia of its owner’s okiya in the other end. A darari obi can be 600centimetres (20ft) long.

Hakata Obi sash

It is an unlined woven obi that has a thick weft and thin weave.

Hoso obi

It is a collective name for informal half-width obis. Hoso obis are 15centimetres (5.9in) or 20centimetres (7.9in) wide and about 330centimetres (11ft) long.

Hanhaba Obi sash

It is an unlined and informal obi that is used with a yukata or an everyday kimono. Hanhaba obis are very popular these days. For use with yukata, reversible hanhaba obis are popular: they can be folded and twisted in several ways to create colour effects. A hanhaba obi is 15centimetres (5.9in) wide and 300centimetres (9.8ft) to 400centimetres (13ft) long. Tying it is relatively easy, and its use does not require pads or strings. The knots used for hanhaba obi are often simplified versions of bunko-musubi. As it is more “acceptable” to play with an informal obi, hanhaba obi is sometimes worn in self-invented styles, often with decorative ribbons and such.

Heko Obi sash

It is a very informal obi made of soft, thin cloth, often dyed with shibori. Its traditional use is as an informal obi for children and men and there were times when it was considered totally inappropriate for women. Nowadays young girls and women can wear a heko obi with modern, informal kimonos and yukatas. An adult’s heko obi is the common size of an obi, about 20centimetres (7.9in) to 30centimetres (12in) wide and about 300centimetres (9.8ft) long.

Maru Obi sash

It is the most formal obi. It is made from cloth about 68cm wide and is folded around a double lining and sewn together. Maru obis were at their most popular during the Taishō- and Meiji-periods. Their bulk and weight makes maru obis difficult to handle and nowadays they are worn mostly by geishas, maikos and others such. Another use for maru obi is as a part of a bride’s outfit. A maru obi is about 30centimetres (12in) to 35centimetres (14in) wide and 360centimetres (12ft) to 450centimetres (15ft) long, fully patterned and often embroidered with metal-coated yarn and foilwork.

Tenga Obi sash

It resembles a hanhaba obi but is more formal. It is usually wider and made from fancier cloth more suitable for celebration. The patterns usually include auspicious, celebratory motifs. A tenga obi is about 20centimetres (7.9in) wide and 350centimetres (11ft) to 400centimetres (13ft) long.

Men’s Obi sash

Men wear obis that are much narrower than those of women (the width is about 10centimetres (3.9in) at its most). The men’s obi are worn in much simpler fashion than women’s: it is wrapped around the waist, below the stomach and tied in a simple knot in the back.

Men’s Obi sash

It is an informal, soft obi. The adult’s heko obi is the size of a normal obi, about 20centimetres (7.9in) to 30centimetres (12in) wide and 300centimetres (9.8ft) to 400centimetres (13ft) long. Adult men wear the heko obi only at home, but young boys can wear it in public, for example at a summer festival with a yukata.

Children’s Obi sash

Children are dressed in kimono especially for the Shichi go san celebration, when girls aged three and seven and boys aged five are celebrated. Children’s kimono outfits resemble those of adults and their parts are basically miniature versions from adult’s pieces. The youngest children wear soft, scarf-like obis.

Polyethylene Fabric, Clothing, Material and Uses

Polyethylene Fabric

Polyethylene fabric is a distinct fabric that is highly acclaimed in the domestic and industrial sectors. It is known for its unmatchable density and strength that is superior to all others. It is a type of a synthetic fabric that is manufactured in the labs. The polymerizing the ethylene results in the stiffer product called polyethylene that is later used for the fabric. Polyethylene fabric is used for loads of purposes.

Polyethylene fabric is the finest replacement of the traditional fabrics for all kinds of bags. Polyethylene fabric is able to hold a lot more weight than previous ones. People like it as is very light and is wear and tear resistant. Also, it is highly elastic that makes it stretchy. It is used in various toys like jumping pads.

Polyethylene Uses

Polyethylene Uses include in machinery. Also, the tough woven Polyethylene uses include in the industries at the large scale. The newest technology in the polyethylene fabric has enhanced the usability of the fabric, like in manufacturing and packaging units.

Polyethylene Uses include in sandwich bags, cling wrap, car covers, squeeze bottles, liners for tanks and ponds, moisture barriers in construction, freezer bags, water pipes, wire and cable insulation, extrusion coating.

Garment Dyeing, Clothes Dyeing, Fabric Dyeing

Garment Dyeing

For some garments, Garment Dyeing is done after final assembly in order to ensure a perfect color match for items intended to be worn together.

Garment Dyeing demands more care than fabrics due to the fact that the processing involves value added goods. The entire garment dyeing activities may be broken down into four categories, namely, fully fashioned garment dyeing, cut and sewn garment, dyeing of 100% cotton goods for boutique trades and processing of denims leading to stone wash, snow wash, over dyeing, stoneless washing and highlighting effects.

A multi-colour splatter effect called splatter dyeing has been made possible on denim garments without the necessity of tieing or knotting, using reactive dyes combining, exhaust dyeing, pad-batch and printing technologies9. Since majority of the garments are constructed from cotton fabrics, reactive and direct dyes are the most popular classes though other classes are also used to some extent 10-17. Exhaust dyeing with pigments is possible only with materials pretreated with a cationic agent which imparts substantivity to overcome the non-substantitive in nature of the pigments.

Unlike fabric dyeing machines where rollers and jets are commonly employed in moving the fabrics through the machine and liquor, garment dyeing machines require special arrangements to move garments with reduced tumbling actions. Salient features of drum type machines, extractors, paddle type and jet circulators have been discussed in the past by many authors. The attributes of ideal garment dyeing machine would include automatic controller for cycle repetition and optimization, shade consistency, centrifugal extraction, heating facility to make the cycle faster, cooling facility, lint filter to give cleaner look to the garments, sampling device for better shade management, addition tank, tilting mechanism for faster unloading of the garments, variable speed for processing different garments and volume level control for shade reproducibility.

Buckles Overview, History, Buckle Application


Buckles are a clasp used for fastening two things together, such as the ends of a belt, or for retaining the end of a strap. Before the invention of the zipper, these were commonly used to fasten boots and other shoes.

Buckles History

Buckles were used in ancient Greece and Rome, particularly in military equipment and military dress on (sword)belts, armour, all sorts of equipment strapping, and on horse gear. The word buckle stems from the Vulgar Latin buccula – meaning little mouth – because of the shape. These were also commonly used in the Celtic civilization. In antiquity, these were commonly made of metal, bone and ivory. Because of the simplicity and durability of the buckle, it became popular in harnesses and embroidery, especially in shoes and boots. It was commonly used as a typical clasp for clothing until the zipper was invented.

The roller buckle is a mid-20th century invention.Buckles with multiple prongs had already appeared in the 18th century. A buckle is commonly found on belts.

Buckles Application

Today, they are most commonly used for belts, although it is still used in shoes and particularly boots. Tanker boots employ the use of buckles because of the disadvantages of laces.

Buckles Application includes in backpacks, watches and other wrist jewelry, or for ornamental purposes on other various objects. Buckles are also commonly seen in modern gothic fashion.

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